JMP  Vol.6 No.9 , August 2015
A Possible Alternative to the Accelerating Universe II
ABSTRACT
This work revises and extends the author’s previous work (2015), Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 78- 87, by proposing that the index of refraction n of intergalactic space (IGS) is of electromagnetic origin. This leads to a theoretical expression for n that agrees very well with the least squares value obtained previously. A table comparing the fractional distance increase predicted by the two differently obtained indices is given. This revised view requires that the high energy charged particles found in cosmic rays originate from high energy neutral particles, presumably high energy gamma rays, that were able to travel through the IGS without energy loss due to Cherenkov radiation. An alternative explanation for the counter indication from the IceCube findings of Abassi, R., et al. (2012) Nature, 484. 351-353 is proposed, which might also explain the findings of Aartsen et al. (2013) Physical Review Letters, 111, 021103. Since the model predicts galaxies act as divergent lenses, a geometrical analysis and corresponding figure describing this effect is given, as well as a table for a range of angles to the image galaxy relative to the direction to a target galaxy that is divergently lensed. The reduction of the speed of light in the IGS leads to a revision of the Planck (2015) value of the Hubble constant of ~68 km·s-1·Mpc-1 to ~47 km·s-1·Mpc-1, and hence an age for the Einstein-de Sitter universe greater than that of the oldest white dwarfs in the Galaxy, thereby resolving a long-standing problem with this model of the universe.

Cite this paper
Tangherlini, F. (2015) A Possible Alternative to the Accelerating Universe II. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 1360-1370. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69141.
References
[1]   Tangherlini, F.R. (2015) Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 78-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.61010

[2]   Perlmutter, S., et al. (1998) Nature, 391, 51-54. (Erratum, 392, 311.)

[3]   Perlmutter, S., et al. (1999) Astrophysical Journal, 517, 565-586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/307221

[4]   Riess, A., et al. (1998) Astronomical Journal, 116, 1009-1038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/300499

[5]   Schmidt, B., et al. (1998) Astrophysical Journal, 507, 46-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/306308

[6]   Anderson, L., et al. (2011) Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 000, 2-33.

[7]   Cox, R.T. (1944) Physical Review, 66, 106-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.66.106

[8]   Milgrom, M. and Usov, V. (1995) Astrophysical Journal, 449, L37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/309633

[9]   Vietri, M. (1995) Astrophysical Journal, 453, 883-889.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/176448

[10]   Waxman, E. (1995) Physical Review Letters, 75, 386-389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.386

[11]   Waxman, E. (2004) Astrophysical Journal, 606, 988-993.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/383116

[12]   Riess, A. (2015) Private Communication (Email), February 25.

[13]   Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J.A., et al. (2012) Nature, 484, 351-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11068

[14]   Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J.A., et al. (2013) An Absence of Neutrinos Associated with Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Gamma-Ray Bursts.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.4219

[15]   Aartsen, M.G., Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J.A., et al. (2013) Physical Review Letters, 111, Article ID: 021103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.021103

[16]   Tonry, J.L., Schmidt, B.P., Barris, B., Candia, P., Challis, P., Clocchiatti, A., et al. (2003) Astrophysical Journal, 594, 1-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/376865

[17]   Abe, P.A.R., et al. (2015) Astronomy and Astrophysics, February 9, 1-67.

[18]   Riess, A.G., Nugent, P.E., Gilliland, R.L., Schmidt, B.P., Tonry, J., Dickinson, M., et al. (2001) Astrophysical Journal, 560, 49-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/322348

[19]   Krauss, L.M. and Chaboyer, B. (2003) Science, 299, 65-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1075631

[20]   Soderblom, D.R. (2010) Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 48, 581-629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-astro-081309-130806

[21]   Weintraub, D.A. (2011) How Old Is the Universe? Princeton University Press, Princeton, 159-172.

[22]   Rowan-Robinson, M. (1985) The Cosmological Distance Ladder. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, 28-225.

[23]   Freedman, W.L. and Madore, B.F. (2010) Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 48, 673-710.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-astro-082708-101829

[24]   Riess, A.G., Macri, L., Casertano, S., Lampeitel, H., Ferguson, H.C., et al. (2011) Astrophysical Journal, 730, 673-710.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/119

[25]   Bennett, C.L., Larson, D., Weiland, J.L. and Hinshaw, G. (2014) Astrophysical Journal, 794, 135-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/794/2/135

 
 
Top