OJML  Vol.5 No.4 , August 2015
A Historical Investigation into Persian Modal Auxiliaries
Show more
Abstract: Modal verbs are typically used in expressing conditional situations and events. This research aims at investigating into the history of modal verbs in Persian from Old to Modern period. Based on the written data related to Old Persian, this language lacks any modal verb. In this period of Persian, conditional events and situations are expressed by other means, including certain verb moods and adverbs. In uncertain periods of Middle Persian four main verbs related to Old Persian had been implemented in new capacities, known as modal verbs, to express modalized events and situations. In Modern Persian, only two of the four Middle Persian modal verbs, namely, tavǎnestan and bǎyestan, plus a new modal verb called šodan are used in expressing different kinds and degrees of modality. However, it was revealed that the range of meanings expressed by Modern Persian modals is not as diverse as those used in Middle Persian.
Cite this paper: Rahimian, J. , Najari, H. and Hesarpuladi, S. (2015) A Historical Investigation into Persian Modal Auxiliaries. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 5, 389-398. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2015.54035.

[1]   Abolghasemi, M. (2008). Historical Grammar of Persian. Tehran: SAMT Press.

[2]   Amuzgar, Z. A. T. (2007). Fifth Denkard: Phonology, Translation, Notes and Glossary, Phalavi Text (1st ed.). Tehran: Moeen Press.

[3]   Brandenstein, W., & Mayrhofer, M. (1964). Handbuch des Altpersischen. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

[4]   Farahvashi, B. (1975). Kǎrnǎmak Ardashir Bǎbakǎn (1st ed.) Tehran: Tehran University Press.

[5]   Givi, A., & Anvari, H. (1991). Persian Grammar. Tehran: Fatemi Press.

[6]   Horn, P. (1893). Grundriss der Neupersischen Etymologie. Strasburg: Verlag von Karl J. Trübner.

[7]   Huddleston, R. (1984). English Grammar: An Outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[8]   Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[9]   Kellens, J. (1995). Liste du Verbe Avestique. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

[10]   Kent, R. (1953). Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society.

[11]   Khanlari, N. P. (1987). Persian History. Tehran: Nashre Now.

[12]   Mackenzie, D. N. (1971). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.

[13]   Mansuri, Y., & Hassanzadeh, J. (2008). An Etymological Study of Persian Verbs. Tehran: Farhangestan Press.

[14]   Meshkatodini, M. (2000). Persian Grammar Based on Transformational Theory. Mashad: Ferdowsi University Press.

[15]   Mirfaxraee, M. (2011). Phalavi Ravāyat (1st ed.). Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies.

[16]   Oryan, S. (1992). Pahlavi Texts (1st ed.). Tehran: National Library of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

[17]   Palmer, F. (1990). Modality and the English Modals. London and New York: Longman.

[18]   Rahimian, J. (1995). Clause Types and Other Aspects of Clause Structure in Persian: A Study towards Comparison with English. Doctoral Dissertation, Brisbane: Queensland University.

[19]   Rahimian, J. (2012). Formal and Semantic Aspects of Modal Elements in Persian Sentences. Journal of Language and Linguistics, 13, 34-50.

[20]   Rahimian, J., & Amuzadeh, M. (2013). Modality and Persian Modal Verbs. Linguistic Inquiry, 4, 1-24.

[21]   Rashed Mohassel, M. T. (2006). Vazidagiha i Zadasparam (2nd ed.). Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies.

[22]   Rostorgueva, V. S. (2000). Persian Grammar (trans. by Shadan, 2nd ed.). Tehran: Association of Famous People and Cultural Works.

[23]   Shariat, M. J. (1985). Persian Grammar. Tehran: Asatir Press.