WJET  Vol.3 No.3 B , August 2015
Influence of Heating Time of Shea Nuts (vitellariaparadoxa) on Some Chemical Properties of Shea Butter
Abstract: The experiment was conducted in the laboratories of the Departments of Chemistry and Animal Health and Production Technology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. The experiment was replicated three times in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and consisted of six heating time 30, 60 and 120 minutes boiling, 30, 60 and 120 minutes roasting and one control. Data were collected on acid value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter. The data collected were analyzed statistically using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedure of statistical analysis system (SAS). The means that were significantly different were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The results showed that there were highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) among the treatments. The highest Acid Value (AV) of 3.53 and 3.64 were recorded by heating time at 120 minutes of boiling and 120 minutes of roasting. Heating time at 30 minutes of boiling, 30 minutes roasting, 60 minutes boiling and 60 minutes roasting recorded lower Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values of 1.52, 1.55, 1.57 and 1.58, respectively. Heating time at 60 minutes of roasting and 60 minutes of boiling recorded the highest Iodine value (IV) of 43.80 and 43.53, respectively. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that heating time of 30 or 60 minutes by boiling or roasting are better than longer heating times for Shea butter extraction.
Cite this paper: Tame, V. , Hassan, I. and Gungula, D. (2015) Influence of Heating Time of Shea Nuts (vitellariaparadoxa) on Some Chemical Properties of Shea Butter. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3, 13-18. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B003.

[1]   Kepsue, C., Bup, N.D., Tchiegang, C., Abi, C.F., Jannot, Y., Parmentier, M. and Puiggali, J.R. (2005) Air Drying of Butyruspermum parkii Kernels. Proceeding of the 14th International Symposium, Sao Paulo, 2051-2058.

[2]   Ogbonnaya, C. and Adgidzi, P.P. (2008) Evaluation of Some Physicochemical Properties of Shea Butter (Butyrospermum paradoxum) Related to Its Value for Food and Industrial utilization. International Journal for Postharvest Technology, 1, 320-326.

[3]   Russo, L. and Etherington, T. (2001) Non Wood News. An Information Bulletin on Non Wood Forest Products, 8, 38-39.

[4]   American Shea Butter Institute (ASBI) (2004) Twenty One Reasons to Use Shea Butters. American Shea Butter Institute, Columbus, GA 31908-7906, USA.

[5]   Lovette, P. (2004) Research and Development of Premium Quality Shea Butter for Production in Northern Ghana. Phase Three. March-August 2003. Technoserve Inc., Ghana.

[6]   Sanz, C., Ansorena, D., Bello, J. and Cid, C. (2001) Optimizing Headspace Temperature and Time Sampling for Identification of Volatile Compounds in Ground Roasted Arabica Coffee. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chimistry, 49, 1364-1369.

[7]   Womeni, H.M., Ndjouekeu, R., Kepsue, C., Fanni, J.J. and Parmentier, M. (2006) Application du procédé séchage- friture aux amandes de karité: influence sur les indices chimiques de qualité et les propriétés de fusion du beurre. Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides, 13, 297:302.

[8]   Womeni, H.M., Kanga, R., Tchiegang, C. and Kepsue, C. (2002) Influence de humidity sur L “extraction de karite: Influence du Sechage des Amandeset de la n Technique d’ extraction. La rivisita Delle Sobstance Grasses, LXXIX, 33- 38.

[9]   Addaquay, J. (2004) Economic and Technology Assessment of West African-Based Shea.

[10]   Gregory, I.O. (2005) Food Analysis and Instrument. Theory and Practice. Naphtali Prints, A Division of HG Support Nigeria, 103-106.

[11]   Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1984) Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.

[12]   Asuquo, J.E. (2008) Studies on the Adsorption of Some Selected Metallic Soaps on the Hermatite. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.