al of Medicine, 366, 184-185.

[23]   Thygesen, K., Alpert, J.S., Jaffe, A.S., Simoons, M.L., Chaitman, B.R., White, H.D., et al. (2012) Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Circulation, 126, 2020-2035.

[24]   Albert, C.M., Mittleman, M.A., Chae, C.U., Lee, I.-M., Hennekens, C.H. and Manson, J.E. (2000) Triggering of Sudden Death from Cardiac Causes by Vigorous Exertion. New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 1355-1366.

[25]   Marijon, E., Uy-Evanado, A., Reiner, K., Teodorescu, C., Narayanan, K., Jouven, X., et al. (2015) Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Sports in Middle Age. Circulation, 131, 1384-1391.

[26]   Kales, S.N., Soteriades, E.S., Christophi, C.A. and Christiani, D.C. (2007) Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease among Firefighters in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 1207-1215.

[27]   Varvarigou, V., Farioli, A., Korre, M., Sato, S., Dahabreh, I.J. and Kales, S.N. (2014) Law Enforcement Duties and Sudden Cardiac Death among Police Officers in the United States: Case Distribution Study. BMJ, 349, g6534.

[28]   Dalager-Pedersen, M., Sogaard, M., Schonheyder, H.C., Nielsen, H. and Thomsen, R.W. (2014) Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke after Community-Acquired Bacteremia: A 20-Year Population-Based Cohort Study. Circulation, 129, 1387-1396.

[29]   Chung, W.S., Lin, C.L., Hsu, W.H. and Kao, C.-H. (2014) Scrub Typhus Increases the Risk of Developing Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Heart, 100, 1844-1850.

[30]   Eisen, D.P., Reid, D. and McBryde, E.S. (2012) Acetyl Salicylic Acid Usage and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis. Critical Care Medicine, 40, 1761-1767.

[31]   Henderson, J.T., Whitlock, E.P., O’Conner, E., Senger, C.A., Thompson, J.H. and Rowland, M.G. (2014) Low-Dose Aspirin for Prevention of Morbidity and Mortality from Preeclampsia: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Service Task the Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160, 695-703.

[32]   Siegel, A.J. (2015) Pre-Race Aspirin Usage to Prevent Cardiac Arrest in Susceptible Runners during Marathons: Is Opportunity Knocking? Open Heart, 2, e000102.

[33]   Siegel, A.J. (2012) Phei-dippides Redux: Reducing Acute Cardiac Risk during Marathon Running. The American Journal of Medicine, 125, 630-635.

[34]   Siegel, A.J. (2013) Aspirin Usage Pre-Race to Prevent Cardiac Arrest in Marathon Runners during Races. The American Journal of Medicine, 126, e47.

[35]   Walkey, A.J. (2014) Preventing Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Infection: A Missed Opportunity? Circulation, 129, 1375-1377.

[36]   Grosser, T., Fries, S., Lawson, J.A., Kapoor, S.C., Grant, G.R. and FitzGerald, G.A. (2013) Drug Resistance and Pseu- do-Resistance: An Unintended Consequence of Enter-ic-Coated Aspirin. Circulation, 127, 377-385.

[37]   Cohen, S.I. and Ellis, E.R. (2012) Death and Near Death from Cardiac Arrest during the Boston Marathon. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 35, 241-244.

[38]   Ray, W.A., Murray, K.T., Hall, K., Arbogast, P.G. and Stein, C.M. (2012) Azithromycin and Risk of Cardiovascular Death. New England Journal of Medicine, 366, 1881-1890.

[39]   Azithromycin Poses Fatal Cardiac Risk. FDA Warns.

[40]   Maharam, L.G., Siegel, A.J., Siegel, S., Adams, B., Pujol, P. and de Menezes, P.A.L. (2010) IMMDA’s Health Recommendations for Runners & Walkers. Approved by the International Marathon Medical Directors Association (IMMDA), Barcelona, 20 March 2010.

[41]   Lourega de Menezes, P.A. (2014) Official Handbook for Runners in the Rio de Janeiro Marathon. Marathon Publications, 12-13.

[42]   Steering Committee of the Physicians’ Health Study Research Group (1989) Final Report on the Aspirin Component of the Ongoing Physicians’ Health Study. New England Journal of Medicine, 321, 129-135.

[43]   Pignone, M., Alberts, M.J., Colwell, J.A., Cushman, M., Inzucchi, S.E., Mukherjee, D., et al. (2010) Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in People with Diabetes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 55, 2878-2885.

[44]   Halvorsen, S., Andreotti, F., Berg, J.M., Cattaneo, M., Coccheri, S., Marchioli, R., et al. (2014) Aspirin Therapy in Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. A Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64, 319-327.

[45]   Zilinski, J.L., Contursi, M.E., Isaacs, S.K., Deluca, J.R., Lewis, G.D., Weiner, R.B., et al. (2015) Myocardial Adaptations to Recreational Marathon Training among Middle-Aged Men. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, 8, e002487.

[46]   Harmon, K.G., Drezner, J.A., Wilson, M.G. and Sharma, S. (2014) Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes: A State of the Art Review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 1185-1192.

[47]   Maron, B.J., Haas, T.S., Murphy, C.J., Ahluwalia, A. and Rutten-Ramos, S. (2014) Incidence and Causes of Sudden Death in U.S. Athletes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 63, 1636-1643.

[48]   Siegel, A.J. (2015) IMMDA Advisory, 2015: Pre-Race Aspirin to Prevent Heart Attack and/or Cardiac Arrest during Long Distance Running.

[49]   Miedema, M.D., Duprez, D.A., Misialek, J.R., Blaha, M.J., Nasir, K., Silverman, M.G., et al. (2014) Use of Coronary Artery Calcium Testing to Guide Aspirin Utilization for Primary Prevention: Estimates from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 7, 453-460.

[50]   Mohlenkamp, S., Lehmann, N., Breuckmann, F., Brocker-Preuss, M., Nassenstein, K., Halle, M., et al. (2008) Running and the Risk of Cardiac Events: Prevalence and Prognostic Relevance of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Marathon Runners. European Heart Journal, 29, 1903-1910.

[51]   Schwartz, R.S., Kraus, S.M., Schwartz, J.G., Wickstrom, K.K., Peichel, G., Garberich, R.F., et al. (2014) Increased Coronary Artery Plaque Volume among Male Marathon Runners. Missouri Medicine, 111, 85-90.

[52]   Mohlenkamp, S., Leineweber, K., Lehmann, N., Braun, S., Roggenbuck, U., Perrey, M., et al. (2014) Coronary Atherosclerosis Burden, but Not Transient Troponin Elevation, Predicts Long-Term Outcome in Recreational Marathon Runners. Basic Research in Cardiology, 109, 391-395.

[53]   Buckley, S. (2013) Dave McGillivray Fights Heart Disease. Boston Herald, 24 December 2013.

[54]   Knox, L. and Estaban, C. (2014) In the Running, Marathon Demographics. Boston Globe. C 8-9, 18 April 2014.

[55]   D’Hemecourt, P.A., Dyer, K.S. and Baggish, A.L. Cardiac Wellness. Boston Athletic Association. Accessed 19 April 2015.

[56]   Siegel, A.J. (2015) Fatal Water Intoxication and Cardiac Arrest in Runners during Marathons: Prevention and Treatment Based on Validated Clinical Paradigms. The American Journal of Medicine. (in press)

[57]   Hew-Butler, T., Rosner, M.H., Fowkes-Godek, S., Dugas, J.P., Hoffman, M.D., Lewis, D.P., et al. (2015) Statement of the 3rd International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25, 303-320.

[58]   Rosner, M.H. Preventing Deaths Due to Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia: The 2015 Consensus Guidelines. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 301-302.

[59]   Yared, K. and Wood, M.J. (2009) Is Marathon Running Hazardous to Your Cardiovascular Health? The Jury Is Still Out. Radiology, 251, 3-5.

[60]   Noakes, T. (2014) Time to Quit That Marathon Running? Not Quite Yet! Basic Research in Cardiology, 109, 395-396.