JEAS  Vol.5 No.3 , September 2015
Microencapsulation of Rosemary Essential Oil by Co-Extrusion/Gelling Using Alginate as a Wall Material
Abstract: An essential oil is the volatile lipophilic component extracted from plants. Microencapsulation systems protect the essential oil from degradation and evaporation, and at the same time allow a sustained release. This work analyzed and characterized the rosemary essential oil microcapsules prepared by co-extrusion technique using alginate as wall material and calcium chloride as cross linker. Several instrumental techniques were used: optical microscopy, coulter counter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), spectrophotometry, antimicrobial test and chromatography. Results show that rosemary oil has pesticidal properties, and its microencapsulation allows knowing that these properties remain inside the microcapsules.
Cite this paper: Dolçà, C. , Ferrándiz, M. , Capablanca, L. , Franco, E. , Mira, E. , López, F. and García, D. (2015) Microencapsulation of Rosemary Essential Oil by Co-Extrusion/Gelling Using Alginate as a Wall Material. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 5, 121-130. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2015.53010.

[1]   Jafari, S., Assadpoor, E., He, Y. and Bhandari, B. (2008) Encapsulation Efficiency of Food Flavours and Oils during Spray Dry. Drying Technology, 26, 816-835.

[2]   Ayala-Zavala, J.F., Toro-Sanchez, L., Alvarez Parrilla, E. and Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A. (2008) High Relative Humidity In-Package of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Advantage or Disadvantage Considering Microbiological Problems and Antimicrobial Delivering Systems. Journal of Food Science, 73, 41-47.

[3]   Kailasapathy, K. (2002) Microencapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria: Technology and Potential Applications. Current Issues in Molecular Biology, 3, 39-48.

[4]   Paster, N. and Bullerman, L.B. (1988) Mould Spoilage and Mycotoxin Formation in Grains as Controlled by Physical Means. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 7, 257-265.

[5]   Paster, N., Menasherov, M., Ravid, U. and Juven, B. (1995) Antifungal Activity of Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils Applied as Fumigants against Fungi Attacking Stored Grain. Journal of Food Protection, 58, 81-85.

[6]   Yoshizawa, H. (2004) Trends in Microencapsulation Research. Kona, 22, 22-31.

[7]   Soliman, E.A., El-Moghazy, A.Y., El-Din, M.S.M. and Massoud, M.A. (2013) Microencapsulation of Essential Oils within Alginate: Formulation and in Vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Science, 3, 48-55.

[8]   Fu, Y., Zu, Y. and Chen, L. (2007) Antimicrobial Activity of Clove and Rosemary Essential Oils Alone and in Combination. Phytotherapy Research, 21, 989-994.

[9]   Barros-Fernandez, R.V., Vilela, S. and Alvarenga, D. (2014) Gum Arabic/Starch/Maltodextrin/Insulin as Wall Materials on the Microencapsulation of Rosemary Essential Oil. Carbohydrate Polymers, 101, 524-532.

[10]   Genena, A.K., Hence, H., Smania, A. and Souza, S.M. (2008) Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)—A Study of the Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts Obtained with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Cienciay Tecnología de Alimentos, 28,463-469.

[11]   Amsden, B. (1998) Solute Diffusion within Hydrogels. Macromolecules, 31, 8382-8395.

[12]   Anbinder, P., Deladino, L., Navarro, A. and Amalvy, J. (2011) Yerba Mate Extract Encapsulation with Alginate and Chitosan Systems: Interactions between Active Compound Encapsulation Polymer. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Science, 1, 80-87.

[13]   McHugh. D. (1987) Production and Utilization of Products from Commercial Seaweeds. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.

[14]   Neira-Carrillo, A. and Yánez, D. (2013) Encapsulación de Biomoléculas Usando Polímeros Naturales: “Un Nuevo Enfoque en la Entrega de Fármacos en Medicina”. Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias, 28.

[15]   González, G.G. (2009) Estabilidad e intercambio de iones calcio en geles de alginato. Instituto tecnológico de Durango, Victoria de Durango.

[16]   Serp, D., Mueller, M., Stockar, U. and Marison, I.W. (2002) Low-Temperature Electron Microscopy for the Study of Polysaccharide Ultrastructures in Hydrogels. II. Effect of Temperature on the Structure of Ca2+-Alginate Beads. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 79, 253-259.

[17]   Hernández, G. and Tisnado, R. (2012) Avances tecnológicos en la producción de alginatos en México. Ingeniería Investigación y Tecnología, 2, 155-168.

[18]   Capablanca, L., Bonet, M., Bou, E., Ferrándiz, M., Franco, E. and Dolcà, C. (2014) Aplicación de técnicas biotecnoló- gicas y de microencapsulación para la funcionalización de agrotextiles. II Congreso de I+D+I Campus Alcoi: Creando Sinergias, Alcoi, 12 Noviembre 2014, 17-20.

[19]   Ferrándiz, M., Franco, E., Pascual, M., Dolcà, C., Capablanca, L., Díaz, P. and López, F. (2015) Potencial and Frequency Influence on the Microcapsules Formation by Co-Extrusion and Gelling. Proceedings of the Innovative Solutions for Sustainable Development of Textiles and Leather Industry, Oradea, 22-23 May 2015, 39-42.

[20]   Chan, E.S., Lee, B.B., Pogaku, R. and Poncelet, D. (2009) Prediction Models for Shape and Size of Ca-Alginate Macrobeads Produced through Extrusion-Dripping Method. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 338, 63-72.

[21]   Morch. Y.A. (2008) Novel Alginate Microcapsules for Cell Therapy—A Study of the Structure-Function Relationships in Native and Structurally Engineered Alginates. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

[22]   Miladi, H. and Ben Slama, R. (2013) Essential Oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L.: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis, Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Properties and Antibacterial Activities against Foodborne Pathogens. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Science, 6, 729-739.

[23]   Ecosmart Technologies, Inc.(2012) Antimicrobial Formulation. US Patent No. US 2012/0252893 A1.

[24]   Matsuzaki, Y., Tsujisawa, T., Nakamura, M. and Kakinoki, Y. (2013) Antifungal Activity of Chemotype Essential Oils from Rosemary against Candida albicans. Open Journal of Stomatology, 3, 176-182.