Back
 AJAC  Vol.6 No.9 , August 2015
Transport Pollution in India
Abstract: Road dusts contribute a large fraction of air pollution in urban environment of India. In the present work, contamination assessment of ions and elements i.e. F﹣, Cl﹣, NO-3, SO2-4, NH+4, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg in the road dusts of the most industrialized area of central India: Raipur (capital, Chhattisgarh state) is described during year: 2008-2013. In year 2008, the mean content of the element i.e. F﹣, Cl﹣, NO-3, SO2-4, NH+4, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hgin the dust (n = 5) was found to be 292 ± 112, 5068 ± 2445, 927 ± 280, 3336 ± 1315, 155 ± 65, 4273 ± 1761, 1477 ± 626, 974 ± 243, 9809 ± 2370, 21.2 ± 2.4, 150 ± 30, 12,816 ± 12,522, 157,736 ± 61,542, 60 ± 7, 566 ± 608, 348 ± 154, 296 ± 163 and 0.10 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively. The enrichment, concentration variations and sources of the elements are discussed.
Cite this paper: Patel, K. , Sahu, D. , Ramteke, S. , Blazhev, B. , Matini, L. , Yubero, E. and Hoinkis, J. (2015) Transport Pollution in India. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 757-766. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.69072.
References

[1]   Schwela, D. (2006) Urban Air Pollution in Asian Cities: Status, Challenges and Management. Earthscan, London and Sterling.

[2]   Perry, A.H. and Symons, J. (2003) Highway Meteorology (Kindle Edition). Taylor & Francis, London.

[3]   Morgenstern, V., Zutavern, A., Cyrys, J., Brockow, I., Koletzko, S., Kramer, U., Behrendt, H., Herbarth, O., Berg, A.V., Bauer, C.P., Wichmann, H.E. and Heinrich, J. (2008) Atopic Diseases, Allergic Sensitization, and Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 177, 1331-1337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200701-036OC

[4]   Han, L., Zhuang, G., Cheng, S., Wang, Y. and Li, J. (2007) Characteristics of Re-Suspended Road Dust and Its Impact on the Atmospheric Environment in Beijing. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7485-7499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.044

[5]   Liu, M., Cheng, S.B., Ou, D.N., Hou, L.J., Gao, L., Wang, L.L., Xie, Y.S., Yang, Y. and Xu, S.Y. (2007) Characterization, Identification of Road Dust PAHs in Central Shanghai Areas, China. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 8785-8795.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.07.059

[6]   Charlesworth, S., Everett, M., McCarthy, R., Ordonez, A. and De Miguel, E. (2003) Comparative Study of Heavy Metal Concentration and Distribution in Deposited Street Dusts in a Large and a Small Urban Area: Birmingham and Coventry, West Midlands, UK. Environment International, 29, 563-573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00015-1

[7]   Faiz, Y., Tufail, M., Javed, M.T., Chaudhry, M.M. and Siddique, N. (2009) Road Dust Pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn along Islamabad Expressway, Pakistan. Microchemical Journal, 92, 186-192.

[8]   Shinggu, D.Y., Ogugbuaja, V.O., Baminas, J.T. and Toma, I. (2007) Analysis of Street Dust for Heavy Metal Pollutants in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Science, 2, 290-293.
http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPS

[9]   Atiemo, M.S., Ofosu, G.F., Kuranchie-Mensah, H., Tutu, A.O., Linda Palm, N.D.M. and Blankson, S.A. (2011) Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Road Dust from Selected Roads in Accra, Ghana. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 3, 473-480.

[10]   Wei, B. and Yang, L. (2010) A Review of Heavy Metal Contaminations in Urban Soils, Urban Road Dusts and Agricultural Soils from China. Microchemical Journal, 94, 99-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2009.09.014

[11]   Lee, P.K., Youm, S.J. and Jo, H.Y. (2013) Heavy Metal Concentrations and Contamination Levels from Asian Dust and Identification of Sources: A Case Study. Chemosphere, 91, 1018-1025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.074

[12]   Du, Y., Gao, B., Zhou, H., Ju, X., Hao, H. and Yin, S. (2013) Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Road Dusts in Urban Parks of Beijing, China. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18, 299-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2013.04.039

[13]   Victoria, A., Cobbina, S.J., Dampare, S.B. and Duwiejuah, A.B. (2014) Heavy Metals Concentration in Road Dust in the Bolgatanga Municipality, Ghana. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 2, 74-80.

[14]   Ubwa, S.T., Abah, J., Ada, C.A. and Alechenu, E. (2013) Levels of Some Heavy Metals Contamination of Street Dust in the Industrial and High Traffic Density Areas of Jos Metropolis. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 3, 13-21.

[15]   Rajaram, B.S., Suryawanshi, P.V., Bhanarkar, A.D. and Rao, C.V.C. (2014) Heavy Metals Contamination in Road Dust in Delhi City, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 72, 3929-3938.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3281-y

[16]   Cerda, E.V., Reyes, L.H., Barbosa, J.M.A., Elizondo-Martinez, P. and Acuna-Askar, K. (2011) Contamination and Chemical Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Street Dust from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico. Environmental Technology, 32, 1163-1172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.529466

[17]   Brugge, D., Durant, J.L. and Rioux, C. (2007) Near-High Way Pollutants in Motor Vehicle Exhaust: A Review of Epidemiologic Evidence of Cardiac and Pulmonary Health Risks. Environmental Health, 6, 8-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069x-6-23

[18]   Ferguson, E., Maheswaran, R. and Daly, M. (2004) Road-Traffic Pollution and Asthma—Using Modelled Exposure Assessment for Routine Public Health Surveillance. International Journal of Health Geographics, 3, 24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-3-24

[19]   Loska, K. and Wiechuya, D. (2003) Application of Principle Component Analysis for the Estimation of Source of Heavy Metal Contamination in Surface Sediments from the Rybnik Reservoir. Chemosphere, 51,723-733.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00187-5

[20]   Surthland, R.A., Tolosa, C.A., Tack, F.M.G. and Verloo, M.G. (2000) Characterization of Selected Element Concentrations and Enrichment Ratios in Background and Anthropogenically Impacted Roadside Areas. Archive of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 38, 428-438.

[21]   Biasioli, M., Barberi, R. and Ajmone-Marsan, F. (2006) The Influence of a Large City on Some Soil Properties and Metals Content. The Science of the Total Environment, 356, 154-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.04.033

[22]   Chen, T.B., Zheng, Y.M., Lei, M., Huang, Z.C., Wu, H.T., Chen, H., Fan, K.K., Yu, K., Wu, X. and Tian, Q.Z. (2005) Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soils of Urban Parks in Beijing, China. Chemosphere, 60, 542-551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.072

[23]   Lee, C.S., Li, X., Shi, W., Cheung, S.C. and Thornton, I. (2006) Metal Contamination in Urban, Suburban, and Country Park Soils of Hong Kong: A Study Based on GIS and Multivariate Statistics. Science of Total Environment, 356, 45-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.03.024

[24]   Duzgoren-Aydin, N.S., Wong, C.S.C., Song, Z.G., Aydin, A., Li, X.D. and You, M. (2006) Fate of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Road Dusts and Gully Sediments in Guangzhou, SE China: A Chemical and Mineralogical Assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12, 374-389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807030500538005

[25]   Adachi, K. and Tainosho, Y. (2004) Characterization of Heavy Metal Particles Embedded in Tire Dust. Environmental International, 30, 1009-1017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2004.04.004

[26]   Rudnick, R.L. and Gao, S. (2003) The Composition of the Continental Crust. In: Holland, H.D. and Turekian, K.K., Eds., Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, 1-64.

 
 
Top