Back
 AS  Vol.6 No.8 , August 2015
Soil Erosion and Its Relationship to the Spatial Distribution of Land Use Patterns in the Lancang River Watershed, Yunnan Province, China
Abstract: The Lancang River Watershed is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the world. The river flows through Yunnan Province, China, which suffered serious deforestation since the 1980s; this in turn led to increased soil erosion in the region. To investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of land use and slope on soil erosion in the Lancang River Watershed, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to establish hydrological models using two-phase land use maps (1975 and 1985), a soil map, and meteorological data from 11 gauging stations. The satisfactory values of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency Ens and correlation coefficient R2 during the calibration and validation period indicated that SWAT can be used in this area to simulate the average annual soil erosion under different land use scenarios change. By comparing soil erosion rate under different land use scenarios change, forests and grasslands had similar effects on preventing soil erosion. A parameter, soil erosion increment (Ei), was used to assess the effects of slope on soil erosion. The results revealed that variation in sediment yield was more sensitive to land use change for slopes exceeded 25° than for slopes being 0° - 15°. The spatial distribution of land use also had a relationship to soil erosion. Compared with the soil erosion rate in each sub-watershed using two-phase land use maps, the soil erosion rate increased when the percent cover of natural vegetation decreased. The results of this study provide baseline data for soil conservation and protection of the environment and ecology of the Lancang River Watershed in Yunnan Province.
Cite this paper: Li, Y. , Zhang, S. and Peng, Y. (2015) Soil Erosion and Its Relationship to the Spatial Distribution of Land Use Patterns in the Lancang River Watershed, Yunnan Province, China. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 823-833. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.68080.
References

[1]   Wilson, G.V., Cullum, R.F. and Römkens, M.J.M. (2008) Ephemeral Gully Erosion by Preferential Flow through a Discontinuous Soil-Pipe. Catena, 73, 98-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2007.09.008

[2]   Hessel, R. and Jetten, V. (2007) Suitability of Transport Equations in Modelling Soil Erosion for a Small Loess Plateau Catchment. Engineering Geology, 91, 56-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.12.013

[3]   Vrieling, A., Jong, S.M., Sterk, G. and Rodrigue, S.C. (2009) Timing of Erosion and Satellite Data: A Multi-Resolution Approach to Soil Erosion Risk Mapping. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 10, 267-281.

[4]   Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Jiménez, L. and Pérez-Rodríguez, R. (2007) Effect of Vegetal Cover on Runoff and Soil Erosion under Light Intensity Events. Rainfall Simulation over USLE Plots. Science of The Total Environment, 378, 161-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.01.043

[5]   Bakker, M.M., Govers, G., van Doorn, A., Quetier, F., Chouvardas, D. and Rounsevell, M. (2008) The Response of Soil Erosion and Sediment Export to Land-Use Change in Four Areas of Europe: The Importance of Landscape Pattern. Geomorphology, 98, 213-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.12.027

[6]   García-Ruiz, J.M. (2010) The Effects of Land Uses on Soil Erosion in Spain: A Review. Catena, 81, 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.01.001

[7]   Feng, X., Wang, Y., Chen, L., Fu, B. and Bai, G. (2010) Modeling Soil Erosion and Its Response to Land-Use Change in Hilly Catchments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geomorphology, 118, 239-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.01.004

[8]   Shen, Z., Chen, L., Hong, Q., Qiu, J., Xie, H. and Liu, R. (2013) Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads and Causal Factors from Different Land Use and Soil Types in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Science of the Total Environment, 454-455, 383-392.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.036

[9]   Hao, F.H., Cheng, L.Q., Liu, C.M. and Dai, D. (2004) Impact of Land Use Change on Runoff and Sediment Yield. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 18, 5-8.

[10]   Ward, J.P., Balen, R.T., Verstraeten, G., Renssen, H. and Vandenberghe, J. (2009) The Impact of Land Use and Climate Change on Late Holocene and Future Suspended Sediment Yield of the Meuse Catchment. Geomorphology, 103, 389-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.07.006

[11]   Nunes, A.N., Almeida, A.C. and Coelho, C.A.O. (2011) Impacts of Land Use and Cover Type on Runoff and Soil Erosion in a Marginal Area of Portugal. Applied Geography, 31, 687-699.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.12.006

[12]   Blavet, D., Noni, G.D., Bissonnais, Y.L., Leonard, M., Maillo, L., Laurent, J.Y., et al. (2009) Effect of Land Use and Management on the Early Stages of Soil Water Erosion in French Mediterranean Vineyards. Soil and Tillage Research, 106, 124-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2009.04.010

[13]   Cai, T., Li, Q.F., Yu, M.X., Lu, G.B., Cheng, L.P. and Wei, X. (2012) Investigation into the Impacts of Land-Use Change on Sediment Yield Characteristics in the Upper Huaihe River Basin, China. The Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 53-54, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2011.08.023

[14]   Ouyang, W., Skidmore, A.K., Hao, F. and Wang, T. (2010) Soil Erosion Dynamics Response to Landscape Pattern. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 1358-1366.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.062

[15]   Ouyang, W., Hao, F.H., Skidmore, A.K. and Toxopeus, A.G. (2012) Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield and Their Relationships with Vegetation Cover in Upper Stream of the Yellow River. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 396-403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.10.020

[16]   Wu, Y. and Chen, J. (2012) Modeling of Soil Erosion and Sediment Transport in the East River Basin in Southern China. Science of the Total Environment, 441, 159-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.057

[17]   Xu, J.C., Zhang, P.F. and Wang, Y.H. (2003) Land Use and Land Cover in Lancang Watershed of Yunnan. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 25, 145-154. (In Chinese)

[18]   Dong, S.C., Zhou, C.J. and Wang, H.Y. (2002) Ecological Crisis and Countermeasures of the Three Rivers’ Headstream Regions. Journal of Nature Resources, 17, 713-719. (In Chinese)

[19]   Yao, H.R., Yang, Z.F. and Cui, B.S. (2006) Spatial Analysis on Soil Erosion of Lancang River Watershed in Yunnan Province under the Support of GIS. Geographical Research, 25, 421-425. (In Chinese)

[20]   Chen, H., Xu, C.Y. and Guo, S.L. (2012) Comparison and Evaluation of Multiple GCMs, Statistical Downscaling and Hydrological Models in the Study of Climate Change Impacts on Runoff. Journal of Hydrology, 434-435, 36-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.02.040

[21]   Jones, R.N., Chiew, F.H.S., Boughton, W.C. and Zhang, L. (2006) Estimating the Sensitivity of Mean Annual Runoff to Climate Change Using Selected Hydrological Models. Advances in Water Resources, 29, 1419-1429.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.11.001

[22]   Du, J.K., Qian, L., Rui, H.Y., Zuo, T.H., Zheng, D.P., Xu, Y.P. and Xu, C.Y. (2012) Assessing the Effects of Urbanization on Annual Runoff and Flood Events Using an Integrated Hydrological Modeling System for Qinhuai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 464-465, 127-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.06.057

[23]   Beskow, S., Mello, C.R., Norton, L.D., Curi, N., Viola, M.R. and Avanzi, J.C. (2009) Soil Erosion Prediction in the Grande River Basin, Brazil Using Distributed Modeling. Catena, 79, 49-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.010

[24]   Romanowicz, A.A., Vanclooster, M., Rounsevell, M. and Junesse, I.L. (2005) Sensitivity of the SWAT Model to the Soil and Land Use Data Parametrisation: A Case Study in the Thyle Catchment, Belgium. Ecological Modelling, 187, 27-39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.01.025

[25]   Asres, M.T. and Awulachew, S.B. (2010) SWAT Based Runoff and Sediment Yield Modelling: A Case Study of the Gumera Watershed in the Blue Nile Basin. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 10, 2-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10104-011-0020-9

[26]   Baker, T.J. and Miller, S.N. (2013) Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Assess Land Use Impact on Water Resources in an East African Watershed. Journal of Hydrology, 486, 100-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.041

[27]   Hydrological Stations in Yunnan Province (1985) The Hydrological Data of South Tibetan and West Yunnan. Hydrological Stations in Yunnan Province Publisher, Yunnan Province.

[28]   Neitsch, S.L., Arnold, J.G., Kiniry, J.R. and Williams, J.R. (2005) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Theoretical Documentation. Blackland Research Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX.

[29]   Nash, J.E. and Sutcliffe, J.V. (1970) River Flow Forecasting through Conceptual Models Part I—A Discussion of Principles. Journal of Hydrology, 10, 282-290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(70)90255-6

[30]   Zhang, S.H., Liu, Y. and Wang, T.W. (2014) How Land Use Change Contributes to Reducing Soil Erosion in the Jialing River Basin, China. Agricultural Water Management, 133, 65-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.10.016

[31]   Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China (2008) Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion. SL190-2007.

 
 
Top