OJOph  Vol.5 No.3 , August 2015
Managing Macular Holes in a Developing Economy
ABSTRACT
Background: Macular holes are the common cause of visual impairment especially in the elderly and have a variety of etiological factors. The advances in the management of macular holes are encouraging and are now available in developing countries although scarce, where hitherto; patients seek attention outside their country. The need to understand this disease has therefore become pertinent in all retina clinics. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of presentation of macular holes and its management in a retina clinic in South South Nigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective, non comparative review of 24 consecutive cases presenting to a retinal clinic was carried out. Relevant information was extracted from the medical records and analyzed. Results: Three hundred and sixty four cases were seen between January 2009 and December 2013. Twenty four cases had macular holes and ten (41.7%) had bilateral presentation with a total of 34 eyes. The incidence of macular holes was 6.6%. The mean age was 46 years (SD ± 13.42) with a female preponderance, 5:1. Idiopathic holes formed the bulk of the cases 14(58.3%); others were trauma 4(16.7%), posterior uveitis 2, (8.3%), chemotherapy 2 (8.3%), Solar retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (4.2%). Nineteen (55.9%) of the 34 eyes were visually impaired (BCVA <6/18). Nineteen eyes had full thickness holes (55.9%) requiring surgery, however only 3(12.5%) of these could afford to have surgery with one reoperation. Four patients (16.7%) had complications in form of retinal detachments at presentation. Conclusion: This study has shown that the incidence of macular holes in the developing world is significant and resources to manage these cases are grossly lacking. Specialist training, with government subsidizing costs will alleviate these difficulties and reduce visual loss from macular holes.

Cite this paper
Fiebai, B. and Pedro-Egbe, C. (2015) Managing Macular Holes in a Developing Economy. Open Journal of Ophthalmology, 5, 139-144. doi: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.53021.
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