JBBS  Vol.5 No.9 , August 2015
Investigation of Prefrontal Cortex Activity in University Students with Presenteeism: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Study
ABSTRACT
Presenteeism refers to impaired performance attributed to attending work with health problems. There has been no study examining the state of presenteeism with objective measures. We compared cerebral hemodynamic changes, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), during neuropsychological tests conducted by university students with presenteeism and healthy controls. Twenty-two university students participated in the study; 11 of them with impaired performance caused by mental health problem were allocated to the presenteeism group and 11 without health problems to the control group. Presenteeism was assessed by the Presenteeism Scale for Students. To evoke hemodynamics changes, the participants completed a Word Fluency Test (WFT) and a Trail Making Test (TMT). The NIRS probes were located over the bilateral prefrontal area. Students with presenteeism had significantly higher incidences of depression than controls. However, there was no significant difference in behavioral performance examinations between the two groups. With regard to hemodynamics changes, the repeated measures analysis of covariance of the NIRS signals revealed significant interactions between group and task activation. Although we observed a significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration during the WFT among controls (simple main effect; left channel, F(1, 19) = 27.34, P < 0.001; right channel, F(1, 19) = 22.05, P < 0.001), no changes were found in students with presenteeism during either the WFT (simple main effect; left channel, F(1, 19) = 0.12, P < 0.732; right channel, F(1, 19) = 0.08, P < 0.778) or TMT tasks (left channel, t = ﹣0.94, P with Bonferroni correction = 0.745; right channel, t = ﹣2.19, P with Bonferroni correction < 0.113). This is the first study to reveal differences in activity in the cerebral cortex associated with presenteeism. The fact that students with presenteeism have prefrontal dysfunction might reinforce the concept of presenteeism.

Cite this paper
Matsushita, M., Yamamura, S. and Ikeda, M. (2015) Investigation of Prefrontal Cortex Activity in University Students with Presenteeism: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Study. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 5, 339-347. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.59034.
References
[1]   Yamashita, M. and Arakida, M. (2006) Concept Analysis of Presenteeism and Its Possible Applications in Japanese Occupational Health. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi, 48, 201-213. (In Japanese)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1539/sangyoeisei.48.201

[2]   Auren, U. (1955) How to Build Presenteeism. Petroleum Refiner, 34, 348-359.

[3]   Koopman, C., Pelletier, K.R., Murray, J.F., Sharda, C.E., Berger, M.L., Turpin, R.S., Hackleman, P., Gibson, P., Holmes, D.M. and Bendel, T. (2002) Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health Status and Employee Productivity. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44, 14-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-200201000-00004

[4]   Goetzel, R.Z., Long, S.R., Ozminkowski, R.J., Hawkins, K., Wang, S. and Lynch, W. (2004) Health, Absence, Disability, and Presenteeism Cost Estimates of Certain Physical and Mental Health Conditions Affecting U.S. Employers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46, 398-412.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000121151.40413.bd

[5]   Wada, K., Arakida, M., Watanabe, R., Negishi, M., Sato, J. and Tsutsumi, A. (2013) The Economic Impact of Loss of Performance Due to Absenteeism and Presenteeism Caused by Depressive Symptoms and Comorbid Health Conditions among Japanese Workers. Industrial Health, 51, 482-489.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2013-0016

[6]   Bergstrom, G., Bodin, L., Hagberg, J., Lindh, T., Aronsson, G. and Josephson, M. (2009) Does Sickness Presenteeism Have an Impact on Future General Health? International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82, 1179-1190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-009-0433-6

[7]   Janssens, H., Clays, E., Clercq, B.D., Bacquer, D.D. and Braeckman, L. (2013) The Relation between Presenteeism and Different Types of Future Sickness Absence. Journal of Occupational Health, 55, 132-141.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1539/joh.12-0164-OA

[8]   Hussain, R., Guppy, M., Robertson, S. and Temple, E. (2013) Physical and Mental Health Perspectives of First Year Undergraduate Rural University Students. BMC Public Health, 13, 848-859.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-848

[9]   Matsushita, M., Adachi, H., Arakida, M., Namura, I., Takahashi, Y., Miyata, M., Kumanogo, T., Yamamura, S., Shigedo, Y., Suganuma, N., Mikami, A., Moriyama, T. and Sugita, Y. (2011) Presenteeism in College Students: Reliability and Validity of the Presenteeism Scale for Students. Quality of Life Research, 20, 439-446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9763-9

[10]   Mikami, A., Matsushita, M., Adachi, H., Suganuma, N., Koyama, A., Ichimi, N., Ushijima, H., Ikeda, M., Takeda, M., Moriyama, T. and Sugita, Y. (2013) Sense of Coherence, Health Problems, and Presenteeism in Japanese University Students. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6, 369-372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2013.03.008

[11]   Sawyer, S.M., Afifi, R.A., Bearinger, L.H., Blakemore, S.J., Dick, B., Ezeh, A.C. and Patton, G.C. (2012) Adolescence: A Foundation for Future Health. The Lancet, 28, 1630-1640.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60072-5

[12]   Azechi, M., Iwase, M., Ikezawa, K., Takahashi, H., Canuet, L., Kurimoto, R., Nakahachi, T., Ishii, R., Fukumoto, M., Ohi, K., Yasuda, Y., Kazui, H., Hashimoto, R. and Takeda, M. (2010) Discriminant Analysis in Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects Using Prefrontal Activation during Frontal Lobe Tasks: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Schizophrenia Research, 117, 52-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2009.10.003

[13]   Suto, T., Fukuda, M., Ito, M., Uehara, T. and Mikuni, M. (2004) Multichannel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Depression and Schizophrenia: Cognitive Brain Activation Study. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 501-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.09.008

[14]   Kameyama, M., Fukuda, M., Yamagishi, Y., Sato, T., Uehara, T., Ito, M., Suto, T. and Mikuni, M. (2006) Frontal Lobe Function in Bipolar Disorder: A Multichannel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study. Neuroimage, 29, 172-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.07.025

[15]   Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A. and Brown, G.K. (1996) BDI-II Manual. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio.

[16]   Kojima, M., Furukawa, T.A., Takahashi, H., Kawai, M., Nagaya, T. and Tokudome, S. (2002) Cross-Cultural Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Japan. Psychiatry Res, 110, 291-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1781(02)00106-3

[17]   Costa, P.T. and McCrae, R.R. (1992) Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.

[18]   Rechtschaffen, A. and Kales, A. (1968) A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System of Sleep Stages in Human Subjects. University of California, Los Angeles.

[19]   Lezak, M.D. (1995) Neuropsychological Assessment. Fifth Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 422-425.

[20]   Lezak, M.D. (1995) Neuropsychological Assessment. Fifth Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 693-694.

[21]   Shibuya-Tayoshi, S., Sumitani, S., Kikuchi, K., Tanaka, T., Tayoshi, S., Ueno, S. and Ohmori, T. (2007) Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex during the Trail-Making Test Detected with Multichannel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61, 616-621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01727.x

[22]   Ikeda, E., Shiozaki, K., Ikeda, H., Suzuki, M. and Hirayasu, Y. (2013) Prefrontal Dysfunction in Remitted Depression at Work Reinstatement Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 214, 254-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.07.009

[23]   Pu, S., Matsumura, H., Yamada, T., Ikezawa, S., Mitani, H., Adachi, A. and Nakagome, K. (2008) Reduced Frontopolar Activation during Verbal Fluency Task Associated with Poor Social Functioning in Late-Onset Major Depression: Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62, 728-737.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01882.x

[24]   Ikezawa, K., Iwase, M., Ishii, R., Azechi, M., Canuet, L., Ohi, K., Yasuda, Y., Iike, N., Kurimoto, R., Takahashi, H., Nakahachi, T., Sekiyama, R., Yoshida, T., Kazui, H., Hashimoto, R. and Takeda, M. (2009) Impaired Regional Hemodynamic Response in Schizophrenia during Multiple Prefrontal Activation Tasks: A Two-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study. Schizophrenia Research, 108, 93-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.12.010

[25]   Iwanaga, R., Tanaka, G., Nakane, H., Honda, S., Imamura, A. and Ozawa, H. (2013) Usefulness of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect Brain Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder When Inferring the Mental State of Others. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 67, 203-209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12052

[26]   Nakadoi, Y., Sumitani, S., Watanabe, Y., Akiyama, M., Yamashita, N. and Ohmori, T. (2012) Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Shows Reduced Activation in the Prefrontal Cortex during Facial Expression Processing in Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 66, 26-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02290.x

[27]   Matsui, M., Tanaka, K., Yonezawa, M. and Kurachi, M. (2007) Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex during Memory Learning: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61, 31-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01607.x

 
 
Top