Back
 JTR  Vol.3 No.3 , September 2015
The Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant and Level of Oxidative Stress of Tuberculosis Patients in Selected Treatment Center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia
Abstract: Introduction: Non-enzymatic antioxidants are good scavengers of free radicals preventing their overproduction there by reducing the level of oxidative stress. This work was undertaken at Saint Peter TB specialized hospital and TekleHaimanot health center from March 2012 to May 2013.Aim: To determine changes in Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants and level of oxidative stress of tuberculosis Patients before and after taking anti tuberculosis treatment.Materials and Methods: In this comparative cross sectional study, a total of 210 individuals including: newly diagnosed TB patients as group-I (n = 70), TB patients who completed treatment as group-II (n = 70), and healthy volunteers as group-III (n = 70) were enrolled. Different methods were used to determine the parameters; vit-C (HPLC method), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbuituric acid method), and bilirubin (Colorimetric assay). Results: Vitamin-C (Vit-C) and of group-I showed a significant reduction (p < 0.001) as compared with both group-II and group-III whereas Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was increased. However, the total and direct bilirubin was not different among the groups. In group-III, there was a positive correlation between BMI and serum Vit-C (r = -0.305, p = 0.010). Vit-C showed a negative correlation with serum MDA in all the groups with values (r = -0.265, p = 0.027), (r = -0.389, p = 0.001) and (r = -0.375, p = 0.001) for group-I, group-II and group-III respectively. In addition to this Vit-C was negatively correlated with serum UA (r = -0.285, p = 0.017) in group-I. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that the amount of Vit-C in the newly diagnosed TB patients and those who finished their treatment is much lower than the healthy volunteers. In contrast to this, the MDA value was significantly higher both in the newly diagnosed TB patients and TB patients who completed treatment than in healthy volunteers suggesting higher degree of oxidative stress.
Cite this paper: Gebretsadik, G. , Seifu, D. , Yimer, G. and Menon, M. (2015) The Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant and Level of Oxidative Stress of Tuberculosis Patients in Selected Treatment Center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 3, 63-71. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2015.33010.
References

[1]   Haas, F. and Haas, S.S. (1996) The Origins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Notion of Its Contagiousness. In: Rom, W.N. and Garay, S., Eds., Tuberculosis, Little, Brown & Co, Boston, 3-19.

[2]   Friedman, L.N. (2001) Tuberculosis Current Concepts and Treatment. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton.

[3]   Smith, I. (2011) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Molecular Determinants of Virulence. Journal of the American Society for Microbiology, 24, 4.

[4]   WHO (2012) WHO Report 2012 Global Tuberculosis Control, Country Profiles.

[5]   Madebo, T., Lindtjorn, B., Aukrust, P. and Berge, R.K. (2003) Circulating Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Untreated Tuberculosis Patients in Ethiopia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 9, 117-122.

[6]   Jack, C.I.A., Jackson, M.J. and Hind, C.R.K. (1994) Circulating Markers of Free Radical Activity in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Tubercle and Lung Disease, 75, 132-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0962-8479(94)90042-6

[7]   Plit, M.L., Theron, A.J., Fickl, H., Van Rensburg, C.E., Pendel, S. and Anderson, R. (1998) Influence of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and Smoking Status on the Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Beta Carotene, Acute Phase Reactants, Iron and Lipid Peroxides in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2, 590-596.

[8]   Ramesh, S.K. and Amareshwara, M. (2011) Study of Protein Oxidation and Antioxidants Status in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2, 104-109.

[9]   Emmanuel, A.D. (2008) Evaluation of Nutritional Status of New Tuberculosis Patients at the Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital. E. A. Dodor, 42, 22-28.

[10]   Berger, M.M. (2005) Can Oxidative Damage Be Treated Nutritionally? Clinical Nutrition, 24, 172-183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.10.003

[11]   Block, G., Dietrich, M., Norkus, E.P., Morrow, J.D., Hudes, M., Caan, B. and Packer, L. (2002) Factors Associated with Oxidative Stress in Human Populations. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 274-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf029

[12]   Morrow, J.D., Hill, K.E., Burk, R.F., Nammour, T.M., Badr, K.F. and Roberts II, L.J. (1990) A Series of Prostaglandin F2-Like Compounds Are Produced in Vivo in Humans by a Non-Cyclooxygenase, Free Radical-Catalyzed Mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87, 9383-9387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.87.23.9383

[13]   Morrow, J.D. (2005) Quantification of Isoprostanes as Indices of Oxidant Stress and the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Humans. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25, 1-8.

[14]   Cesari, M., Kritchevsky, S.B., Leeuwenburgh, C. and Pahor, M. (2006) Oxidative Damage and Platelet Activation as New Predictors of Mobility Disability and Mortality in Elders. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 8, 609-619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2006.8.609

[15]   Bagi, Z., Cseko, C., Toth, E. and Koller, A. (2003) Oxidative Stress-Induced Dysregulation of Arteriosal Wall Shear Stress and Blood Pressure in Hyperhomocysteinemia Is Prevented by Chronic Vitamin-C Treatment. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 285, H2277-H2283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00448.2003

[16]   Niki, E., Noguchi, N., Tsuchihashi, H. and Gotoh, N. (1995) Interaction among Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Beta-Carotene. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 1322S-1326S.

[17]   Sharma, R.K. and Agarwal, A. (2004) Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Gynecologic Diseases. Reproductive Medicine and Biology, 3, 177-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0578.2004.00068.x

[18]   Enomoto, A. and Endou, H. (2005) Roles of Organic Anion Transporters (OATs) and a Urate Transporter (URAT1) in the Pathophysiology of Human Disease. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, 9, 195-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-005-0368-5

[19]   Santos, C., Anjos, E.I. and Augusto, O. (1999) Uric Acid Oxidation by Peroxynitrite: Multiple Reactions, Free Radical Formation, and Amplification of Lipid Oxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 372, 285-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1999.1491

[20]   Klandorf, H., Rathore, D., Iqbal, M., Shi, X., Simoyi, M. and Van Dyke, K. (2002) Acceleration of Tissue Aging in Chickens Caused by Oxidative Stress Using Allopurinol and Detected by Cellular Humoral Chemiluminescence. In: Van Dyke, K., Van Dyke, C. and Woodfork, K., Eds., Luminescence Biotechnology, CRC Press, New York, 393-407.

[21]   Simoyi, M., Van Dyke, K. and Klandorf, H. (2002) Manipulation of Plasma Uric Acid Broiler Chicks and Its Effect on Leukocyte Oxidative Activity. American Journal of Physiology, 282, R791-R796.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00437.2001

[22]   Tiribelli, C. and Ostrow, J.D. (2005) The Molecular Basis of Bilirubin Encephalopathy and Toxicity: Report of an EASL Single Topic Conference, Trieste, Italy, 1-2 October, 2004. Journal of Hepatology, 43, 156-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2005.04.003

[23]   Penn, Z.J. and Steer, P.J. (1996) Breech Presentation. In: James, D.K., Steer, P.J., Weiner, C.P. and Gonik, B., Eds., High Risk Pregnancy: Management Options, WB Saunders, London, 173-198.

[24]   Walubo, A., Smith, P.J. and Folb, P.I. (1995) Oxidative Stress during Antituberculous Therapy in Young and Elderly Patients. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 8, 106-113.

[25]   Rai, R.R. and Phadke, M.S. (2006) Plasma Oxidant Antioxidant Status in Different Respiratory Disorder. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 21, 161-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02912934

[26]   Benova, L., Fielding, K., Greig, J., Nyang’wa, B.-T., Casas, E.C., da Fonseca, M.S. and du Cros, P. (2012) Association of BMI Category Change with TB Treatment Mortality in HIV-Positive Smear-Negative and Extrapulmonary TB Patients in Myanmar and Zimbabwe. PLoS ONE, 7, e35948.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035948

[27]   Getahun, H., Harrington, M., O’Brien, R. and Nunn, P. (2007) Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in People with HIV Infection or AIDS in Resource-Constrained Settings: Informing Urgent Policy Changes. The Lancet, 369, 2042-2049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60284-0

[28]   Kwiatkowska, S., Piasecka, G., Zieba, M. and Piotrowski, D. (1999) Increased Serum Concentrations of Conjugated Diens and Malondialdehyde in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Respiratory Medicine, 93, 272-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0954-6111(99)90024-0

[29]   Lawn, S.D., Myer, L., Bekker, L.G. and Wood, R. (2006) Burden of Tuberculosis in an Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impact on Treatment Outcomes and Implications for Tuberculosis Control. AIDS, 20, 1605-1612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000238406.93249.cd

[30]   Reddy, Y.N., Murthy, S.V., Krishna, D.R. and Prabhakar, M.C. (2004) Role of Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Tuberculosis Patients. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 51, 213-218.

[31]   Parchwani, D., Singh, S.P. and Patel, D. (2011) Total Antioxidant Status and Lipid Peroxides in Patients with Pulmonary tuberculosis. National Journal of Community Medicine, 2, 226-228.

[32]   32Hashmi, M.A., Ahsan, B., Ali Shah, S.I. and Khan, M.I.U. (2012) Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation Product in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences, 5, 313-319.

[33]   Johnkennedy, N., Onyinyechi, A.S. and Chukwunyere, N.N.E. (2011) The Antioxidant Status and Lipid Peroxidation Product of Newly Diagnosed and 6 Weeks Follow-Up Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 1, 292-294.

[34]   Zierski, M. and Bek, E. (1980) Side Effects of Various Combinations of Rifampin and Isoniazid with Ethambutol or Streptomycin and Pyrazinamide in Short-Term Chemotherapy of Newly-Detected Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska, 48, 469-479.

[35]   Akiibinu, M.O., Arinola, O.G., Ogunlewe, J.O. and Onih, E.A. (2007) Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants and Nutritional Profiles in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 10, 223-228.

[36]   Adebisi, S.A., Oluboyo, P.O. and Okesina, A.B. (2000) Effect of Drug-Induced Hyperuricaemia on Renal Function in Nigerians with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 29, 297-300.

[37]   Sanchez-Albisua, I., Vidal, M.L., Joya-Verde, G., del Castillo, F., de Jose, M.I. and Garcia-Hortelano, J. (1997) Tolerance of Pyrazinamide in Short Course Chemotherapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 16, 760-763.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199708000-00006

[38]   Ames, B.N., Cathcart, R., Scwiers, E. and Hochstein, R. (1981) Uric Acid Provides an Antioxidant Defense in Humans against Oxidants and Radicals Caused Ageing and Cancer. A Hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 79, 6858-6862. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.78.11.6858

[39]   Hkhan, Z. and Swarke, S. (2012) Effect of Antituberculosis Drugs on Levels of Serum Proteins in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, 1, 94-100.

 
 
Top