Health  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2015
Involvement of Male Youth into Accidents in Upper Egypt: Pattern and Risk Analysis
Abstract: Background: Accidents pose a serious threat to health and economy in Egypt. Objectives: To identify and analyze the epidemiological factors associated with different types of accidents among adult males in Upper Egypt. Methods: A sample of 500 Egyptian males 20 - 28 years of age attending for health care at Quena University Hospital (QUH) or affiliated health institutions in South Egyptian governorates of Luxor and Red Sea was studied. The demographic, socioeconomic, and habitual data, as well as health status, medical history, and history of engagement into accidents for the recruits all were evaluated. Results: Accidents occurrences accounted up to 23/500 (4.6%) of the studied group. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) represented the highest percentage (30.4%), followed by street fights (21.7%) and animal bites (13.1%). Occupational accidents, electrical injuries, and near-drowning, all were equally encountered (8.7%), whereas falls and burns were least prevalent (4.3% each). Drug abuse, manual work, obesity, and having epilepsy were significant risk factors for accident injuries (OR = 6.35, 95% CI: 1.64 - 24.58, OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.22 - 9.73, OR = 4.81, 95% CI: 1.50 - 15.46, OR = 45.33, 95% CI: 3.94 - 518.01, respectively). Conclusions: Engagement of young Upper Egyptian males into accidents is alarming. Most of the accident mechanisms encountered are preventable. Enforcement of standard occupational, traffic and public safety laws is needed to minimize the burden of accidents upon the public health and economy in Upper Egypt.
Cite this paper: Afifi, R. , Zaytou, S. , El Raggal, A. , Qulali, A. and Ayoub, H. (2015) Involvement of Male Youth into Accidents in Upper Egypt: Pattern and Risk Analysis. Health, 7, 965-975. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.78114.

[1]   Van den Broek, K. and De Beeck, R.O. (2001) Prevent, Belgium. Accidents and Incidents. European Agency for Safety at Work.

[2]   Heinrich, H.W. (1931) Industrial Accident Prevention: A Scientific Approach. McGraw-Hill, New York. Quoted in Hollnagel, E. (2009) Safer Complex Industrial Environments: A Human Factors Approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[3]   Bird, F. and Germain, G. (1966) A New Horizon in Accident Prevention and Cost Improvement, New York.

[4]   Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (2004) Investigating Accidents and Incidents. A Workbook for Employers, Unions, Safety Representatives and Safety Professionals. UK.

[5]   Statistical Report on Road Accidents in 1999-2000 (2003) European Conference of Ministers of Transport, Paris.

[6]   Tursz, A. (1986) Epidemiological Studies of Accident Morbidity in Children and Young People. World Health Statistics Quarterly, 39, 257-267.

[7]   World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013.

[8]   Waller, J.A. (1987) Injury: Conceptual Shifts and Preventive Implications. Annual Review of Public Health, 8, 21-49.

[9]   Nantulya, V.M. and Reich, M.R. (2002) The Ne-glected Epidemic; Road Traffic Injuries. BMJ, 11, 1142-1145.

[10]   Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) (1996) Involvement by Young Drivers in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes. MMWR, 45, 1049-1053.

[11]   World Health Organization (WHO) (2014) Adolescents: Health Risks and Solutions Fact Sheet No. 345.

[12]   International Labor Organization (ILO) (2002) P155—Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981. Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention (Entry into Force: 09 Feb 2005). 90th ILC Session, Geneva, 20 June 2002.

[13]   European Commission, European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW), Methodology (2001)

[14]   Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) (2007) 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Requirements Standard.

[15]   Hmingthanzuala, Sanayaima, H.D. and Gambhir, T.S. (2011) Domestic Accidents in an Urban Health Training Centre. Indian Medical Gazette, 476-480.

[16]   Halperin, S.F., Bass, J.L., Mehta, K.A. and Betts, K.D. (1983) Unintentional Injuries among Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 4, 275-279.

[17]   Review of Evidence on Housing and Health: Background Document, Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (2004) Budapest, Hungary, 23-25 June, WHO-EURO.

[18]   National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control (1989) Injury Prevention: Meeting the Challenge. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 1-17.

[19]   Pollack, D.M. and McClain, P.W. (1989) Trauma Registries: The Current Status and Future Prospects. JAMA, 262, 2280-2283.

[20]   Hijar, M.C. and Kraus, J.F. (2000) Cross-National Comparison of Injury Mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 29, 517-521.

[21]   Frank, R., Bouman, D.A., Callagher, S. and Milner, R. (1992) Preliminary Study of Traumatic Injury Prevention Program. Psychology & Health, 6, 129-140.

[22]   Monti, P.M., Tevyaw, T.O.L. and Borsari, B. (2004) Drinking among Adults: Steering, Brief Interventions, and Outcome. Alcohol Research and Health, 28, 236-244.

[23]   Think First National Injury Prevention Foundation: History. (2005)

[24]   International Labor Organization (ILO). International Labor Standards on Occupational Safety and Health.

[25]   The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents. Preventing Accidents in the Home.

[26]   Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMS) (2012) Arabic Republic of Egypt.

[27]   Fahmy, S.I. and El Sherbini, A.F. (1983) Determining Simple Parameters for Social Classification for Health Research. Bulletin of the High Institute of Public Health, 8, 95-107.

[28]   Afifi, R. (2012) Impact of Trauma System Preparedness on the Outcomes of Severe Child Injuries, USA. Indian Journal of Surgery, 74, 456-461.

[29]   Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS/WHO) (2004) Epidemiological Fact Sheet.

[30]   Siegel, M., Mowery, P.D. and Strauss, W.J. (2000) Trends in Adult Cigarette Smoking in California Compared with the Rest of the United States, 1978-1994. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 372-379.

[31]   Zaytoun, S., Afifi, R., Alsenbesy, M. and Ayoub, H. (2015) Patterns and Distribution of Drug Dependence and Associated Risk Factors among Male Youth in Upper Egypt. European Journal of Scientific Research, 131, 215-219.

[32]   Afifi, R.M., Omar, S.R. and El Raggal, A.A. (2012) A Community Screening Plan for the Prevalence of Some Chronic Diseases in Specified Adult Populations in Saudi Arabia: 1—Prediabetes and Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 19 April 2012. JDDC-D-12-00089.

[33]   American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2011) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Criteria for the Diagnosis of Diabetes.

[34]   Amira, G.S., Randa, M.A. and Nabil, A.R. (2001) A Pilot Study of the International Program for Prevention of Head and Spinal Cord Injuries in Alexandria. Bulletin of the High Institute of Public Health, 31, 233-254.

[35]   World Health Report (1999) The Double Burden: Emerging Epidemics and Persistent Problems. WHO, Geneva.

[36]   Burt, C.W. and Fingerhut, L.A. (1998) Injury Visits to Hospital Emergency Departments: United States, 1992-95. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 13, No. 131, 1-76.

[37]   King, D., Benbow, S.J. and Barrett, J.A. (1992) The Law and Medical Fitness to Drive: A Study of Doctors’ Knowledge. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 68, 624-628.

[38]   Shults, R.A., Elder, R.W., Sleet, D.A., Nichols, J.L., Alao, M.O., Carande-Kulis, V.G., et al. (2001) Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Reviews of Evidence Regarding Inter-ventions to Reduce Alcohol-Impaired Driving. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 66-88.

[39]   Svend, L. (2001) Increased Driving Accident Frequency in Danish Patients with Epilepsy. Neurology, 57, 435-439.

[40]   Sacks, J.J., Kresnow, M. and Houston, B. (1996) Dog Bites: How Big a Problem? Injury Prevention, 2, 52-54.

[41]   Kamel, I.M., Salwa, E.T. and Iman, A.D. (2001) Pattern of Animal Bites in Alexandria. Bulletin of the High Institute of Public Health, 31, 715-731.

[42]   Hensley, J.A. (1998) Potential Rabies Exposure in Virginia City. Public Health Reports, 113, 258-262.

[43]   Mada Masr (2014) Eighteen Burned to Death, 18 Injured in School Bus Crash in Beheira. 5 November 2014.