Back
 EPE  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2015
An Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions by the Re-Liquefaction of Boil-Off Gas of LNG Storage Tank
Abstract: The pressure in liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank continues to increase due to the heat transfer from ambient air to low temperature LNG, which raises safety concerns. Accordingly, there is increasing interest to explore the technical approaches capable of recovering Boil-Off Gas (BOG) and even eliminating the ventilation of LNG storage tank. This research numerically analyzed the greenhouse gas emissions of the re-liquefaction of BOG using the following four approaches: 1) a Claude cycle driven by electrical motor with the electricity produced by burning coal; 2) a Claude cycle driven by a gas turbine fuelled by BOG released; 3) a Claude cycle driven by a SI engine fuelled by gasoline; 4) burning nature gas directly released by BOG. The impact of heat transfer coefficient, LNG tank configuration, size, and percentage of LNG stored in tank on the rate of BOG and energy needed for the re-liquefaction of methane vapor were investigated. The greenhouse gas emissions (GGE) was examined and compared. The data presented in this paper provide guideline for the management of pressure development in LNG storage tank.
Cite this paper: Sun, G. , Liu, S. and Li, X. (2015) An Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions by the Re-Liquefaction of Boil-Off Gas of LNG Storage Tank. Energy and Power Engineering, 7, 354-364. doi: 10.4236/epe.2015.78033.
References

[1]   Yang, Z.H. (2011) Economic Growth, the Dynamic Relationship between Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions. The Journal of World Economy, 6, 100-125.

[2]   Lin, B.Q. and Jiang, Z.J. (2009) The Predict and Influence Factors Analysis of the Kuznets Curve in Chinese Carbon Dioxide Environment. Management World, 4, 27-36.

[3]   Shin, M.W., Shin, D., Choi, S.H. and Yoon, E.S. (2008) Optimal Operation of the Boil-Off Gas Compression Process Using a Boil-Off Rate Model for LNG Storage Tanks. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25, 7-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11814-008-0002-9

[4]   Sinha, R.P. and Norsani, W.M. (2012) Investigation of Propulsion System for Large LNG Ships. 1st International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research 2011 (ICMER2011), Materials Science and Engineering, 36, 1-16.

[5]   Seo, M. and Jeong, S. (2010) Analysis of Self-Pressurization Phenomenon of Cryogenic Fluid Storage Tank with Thermal Diffusion Model. Cryogenics, 50, 549-555.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2010.02.021

[6]   Khemis, O., Boumaza, M., Ait Ali, M. and Francois, M.X. (2003) Experimental Analysis of Heat Transfers in a Cryogenic Tank without Lateral Insulation. Applied Thermal Engineering, 23, 2107-2117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-4311(03)00164-9

[7]   Moon, J.W., Lee, Y.P., Jin, Y.W., Hong, E.S. and Chang, H.M. (2007) Cryogenic Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Lique- faction of LNG Boil-Off Gas. International Cryocooler Conference, Inc., Boulder, 629-635.

[8]   Querol, E., Gonzalez-Regueral, B., García-Torrent, J. and Ramos, A. (2011) Available Power Generation Cycles to Be Coupled with the Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Vaporization Process in a Spanish LNG Terminal. Applied Energy, 88, 2382-2390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.023

[9]   Chin, Y.W. (2006) Cycle Analysis on LNG Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Plant. Journal of the Korea Institute of Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics, 8, 34-38.

[10]   Baek, S., Hwang, G., Lee, C., Jeong, S. and Choi, D. (2011) Novel Design of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) Reliquefaction Process. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 2807-2814.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.02.015

[11]   Shin, Y. and Lee, Y.P. (2009) Design of a Boil-Off Natural Gas Reliquefaction Control System for LNG Carriers. Applied Energy, 86, 37-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.03.019

[12]   Pil, C.K., Rausand, M. and Vatn, J. (2008) Reliability Assessment of Reliquefaction Systems on LNG Carriers. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 93, 1345-1353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2006.11.005

[13]   Sayyaadi, H. and Babaelahi, M. (2010) Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Cryogenic Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Lique- faction of the LNG Boil-Off Gas. International Journal of Refrigeration, 33, 1197-1207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2010.03.008

[14]   Sayyaadi, H. and Babaelahi, M. (2011) Multi-Objective Optimization of a Joule Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of the Liquefied Natural Gas. Applied Energy, 88, 3012-3021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.03.041

[15]   Romero, J., Orosa, J.A. and Oliveira, A.C. (2012) Research on the Brayton Cycle Design Conditions for Reliquefaction Cooling of LNG Boil off. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 17, 532-541.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00773-012-0180-3

[16]   O’Brien, J.E. and Siahpush, A. (1998) Investigation of Low-Cost LNG Vehicle Fuel Tank Concepts. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Final Report, FGFU-98/0015.

[17]   Wang, X.H. (2003) The Choice and Analysis of the Technology of Nitrogen Liquification Equipments, Coal Chemical Industry. 8.

 
 
Top