FNS  Vol.6 No.11 , August 2015
Determination of the Most Toxic Polychlorodibenzofurans in Fresh Milk from Southwest Iran
Abstract: Background: Today’s presence of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in foodstuff, such as milk and milk products, is considered to be the major concern for human health. This study was aimed to determine the concentrations of the most toxic congeners of furans in pasteurized milk samples produced in southwest Iran. Material and method: 15 composite samples of pasteurized milk were collected from 3 major dairy factories in Khuzestan Province (southwest of Iran) in summer, autumn and winter from July 2011 to March 2012. After precipitation of the proteins, fat phase was reduced and extracted with hexane and ether. After dehydration, furans existed in fat percolated with hexane through a column chromatography that contained respectively silica gel/silver nitrate, silica gel, silica gel/sulphuric acid and with percolating output through another column that contained activated charcoal and silica gel and washed the lower column with a mixture of dichloromethane-hexane and toluene, concentrated and dissolved in mobile phase and analyzed using HPLC: 150 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 5 μm cosmosil 5 NPE column equipped with a UV detector at 254 and 235 nm, mobile phase: methanol/water (80:20, v/v) at flow rate of 1 ml/min. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with furans. The average concentration of 2,3,7,8 TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8 PCDF were 1.91 pg/g and 1.77 pg/g in lipid content ranging from 2% to 3% respectively. The mean total content of furans in milk fat was 0.36 TEQ (Toxic Equivalency) pg/g which was below the recommended EU (European Union) threshold value 3 pg (WHO-PCDFs-TEQ/g fat). Also, result showed that there were statistically significant differences between each factory during 3 seasons.
Cite this paper: Nakisa, A. , Khorasgani, Z. , Rezaei, M. , Imani, N. and Rezaee, S. (2015) Determination of the Most Toxic Polychlorodibenzofurans in Fresh Milk from Southwest Iran. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 955-963. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.611099.

[1]   Schatowitz, B., Brandt, G., Gafner, F., Schlumpf, E., Bühler, R., Hasler, P. and Nussbaumer, T. (1994) Dioxin Emissions from Wood Combustion. Chemosphere, 29, 2005-2013.

[2]   McGregor, D.B., Partensky, C., Wilbourn, J. and Rice, J.M. (1998) An IARC Evaluation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans as Risk Factors in Human Carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106, 755-760.

[3]   van Zorge, J.A., van Wijnen, J.H., Theelen, R., Olie, K. and van den Berg, M. (1989) Assessment of the Toxicity of Mixtures of Halogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans by Use of toxicity Equivalency Factors (TEF). Chemosphere, 19, 1881-1895.

[4]   La Rocca, C. and Mantovani, A. (2006) From Environment to Food: The Case of PCB. Annali-Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 42, 410-416.

[5]   Llobet, J.M., Domingo, J.L., Bocio, A., Casas, C., Teixidó, A. and Müller, L. (2003) Human Exposure to Dioxins through the Diet in Catalonia, Spain: Carcinogenic and non-Carcinogenic Risk. Chemosphere, 50, 1193-1200.

[6]   Heilier, J.-F., Nackers, F., Verougstraete, V., Tonglet, R., Lison, D. and Donnez, J. (2005) Increased Dioxin-Like Compounds in the Serum of Women with Peritoneal Endometriosis and Deep Endometriotic (Adenomyotic) Nodules. Fertility and Sterility, 84, 305-312.

[7]   Beck, H., Dross, A. and Mathar, W. (1992) PCDDs, PCDFs, and Related Contaminants in the German Food Supply. Chemosphere, 25, 1539-1550.

[8]   Amlinger, D.I.F., Inc, W.C.E. and Pollak, D.M. (2004) Compost–Consulting & Development.

[9]   Bovee, T.F., Hoogenboom, L.A., Hamers, A.R., Traag, W.A., Zuidema, T., Aarts, J.M., Brouwer, A. and Kuiper, H.A. (1998) Validation and Use of the CALUX—Bioassay for the Determination of Dioxins and PCBs in Bovine Milk. Food Additives & Contaminants, 15, 863-875.

[10]   Plomley, J.B., Lausevic, M. and March, R.E. (2000) Determination of Dioxins/Furans and PCBs by Quadrupole Ion-Trap Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 19, 305-365.<305::AID-MAS4>3.0.CO;2-T

[11]   Bandh, C., Ishaq, R., Broman, D., Näf, C., R&uualnquist-Nii, Y. and Zebühr, Y. (1995) Separation for Subsequent Analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PAHs According to Aromaticity and Planarity Using a Two-Dimensional HPLC System. Environmental Science & Technology, 30, 214-219.

[12]   Martinez-Cored, M., Pujadas, E., Diaz-Ferrero, J., Coll, M., Martí, R., Broto-Puig, F., Comellas, L. and Rodríguez-Larena, M. (1999) Fractionation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls by High Performance Liquid Chromatography on a Pyrenyl-Silica Column. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 364, 576-583.

[13]   Kawashiro, Y., Fukata, H., Omori-Inoue, M., Kubonoya, K., Jotaki, T., Takigami, H., Sakai, S. and Mori, C. (2008) Perinatal Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardants and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Japan. Endocrine Journal, 55, 1071-1084.

[14]   Sun, S., Zhao, J., Leng, J., Wang, P., Wang, Y., Fukatsu, H., Liu, D., Liu, X. and Kayama, F. (2010) Levels of Dioxins and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Human Milk from Three Regions of Northern China and Potential Dietary Risk Factors. Chemosphere, 80, 1151-1159.

[15]   Diletti, G., Torreti, L., De Massis, M.R., Migliorati, G. and Scortichini, G. (2003) A Case of Milk Contamination by PCDD/Fs in Italy: Analytical Levels and Contamination Source Identification. Organohalogen compounds, 64, 1-4.

[16]   Schmid, P., Gujer, E., Zennegg, M. and Studer, C. (2003) Temporal and Local Trends of PCDD/F Levels in Cow’s Milk in Switzerland. Chemosphere, 53, 129-136.

[17]   Focant, J.-F., Pirard, C., Massart, A.-C. and De Pauw, E. (2003) Survey of Commercial Pasteurised Cows’ Milk in Wallonia (Belgium) for the Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Chemosphere, 52, 725-733.

[18]   Esposito, M., Serpe, F.P., Neugebauer, F., Cavallo, S., Gallo, P., Colarusso, G., Baldi, L., Iovane, G. and Serpe, L. (2010) Contamination Levels and Congener Distribution of PCDDs, PCDFs and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Buffalo’s Milk from Caserta Province (Italy). Chemosphere, 79, 341-348.

[19]   Storelli, M.M., Scarano, C., Spanu, C., De Santis, E.P.L., Busco, V., Storelli, A. and Marcotrigiano, G.O. (2012) Levels and Congener Profiles of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sheep Milk from an Industrialised Area of Sardinia, Italy. Food and chemical toxicology, 50, 1413-1417.

[20]   Scarano, C., Storelli, M., Virdis, S., Mudadu, A., Spanu, C., De Santis, E. and Marcotrigiano, G. (2012) 2.8. (S2.30) Levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Sheep Milk Collected in Sardinia, Italy. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation, 37-39.

[21]   Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, J., Mikolajczyk, S., Maszewski, S., Warenik-Bany, M. and Góraj, L. (2012) Study of Dioxin Levels in Raw Milk of Cows and Goats in Poland. Proceedings of ECOpole, 6, 77-86.