JWARP  Vol.7 No.12 , August 2015
Water Resources Conflict Management of Nyabarongo River and Kagera River Watershed in Africa
ABSTRACT
In the process of exploiting and using water resources of river basin, the benefit conflict problems among upper and lower river districts and among different departments restrict to sustainable exploiting and using water resources of river basin. In this paper, the water resources conflict management of Nyabarongo River and Kagera River watershed is studied. The Nyabarongo is a major river in Rwanda, begins in Nyungwe Forest, and flows up to the north-western part of the country, then down through the center to the south-east, eventually forming the main tributary of the Kagera River watershed, the main affluent of Lake Victoria, which drains into the Nile River. The basin is shared among 11 riparian states. This trans-boundary character of the Nile presents a great challenge of water conflicts; national interests have historically been promoted at the expense of regional interests. The framework of this paper is as follows: the water resources bulletin is firstly described, and then the cooperation and regional conflicts are discussed; finally a sustainable framework for governing the water resources is proposed to meet water management in riparian states.

Cite this paper
Habiyakare, T. and Zhou, N. (2015) Water Resources Conflict Management of Nyabarongo River and Kagera River Watershed in Africa. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 889-896. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.712073.
References
[1]   CGIS-UNR. Environment and Poverty (2003) A Pilot Study on the Relationship between Environment and Poverty Mapping. UNDP, Kigali.

[2]   MINALOC (2003) The Draft of National Policy for the Management of Risks and Disasters in Rwanda.

[3]   MINAGRI (1998) National Policy for the Management of Water Resources.

[4]   NISR (2012) Rwanda Census. The National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. Kigali, Rwanda.

[5]   Nzeyimana, L. (2003) Rusumo Dam-Social Challenge in Kagera River Basin: Participation of the Affected Population. Linköping University, Sweden.

[6]   Ndayiragije, D. (1992) A Geomorphological Study of the Kagera Basin. Unesco/University of Burundi, Bujumbura.

[7]   Twagiramungu, F. (2006) Environmental Profile of Rwanda. National Authorizing Office of FED and European Commission.

[8]   NELSAP (2001) 11-12 December Report from NELSAP River Basin Project Preparatory Workshop. Nile Basin Initiative.

[9]   NBI (2001) Water Resources Planning and Management, Project Document. Nile Basin Initiative.

[10]   NBI (2001) Transboundary Environmental Analysis. Nile Basin Initiative.

[11]   Ndege (1996) Strain, Water Demand, and Supply Directions in the Most Stressed Water. Civil Engineering Department, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.

[12]   NBI (2005) National Nile Basin Water Quality Monitoring Report for Rwanda. Nile Transboundary Environmental Action Project, Nile Basin Initiative.

[13]   RNRA (2012) Water Resources Information Bulletin for June-July 2012. Rwanda National Resources Authority, Kigali.

[14]   MINITERE (2005) Project of National Management of Water Resources. Components D: Technical Studies. The Ministry of Lands, Environment, Forestry, Water and Mines.

[15]   PGNRE (2005) Knowledge and Data Management on Water in Rwanda. General Technical Report, Kigali.

[16]   K.V.P. (2006) Analysis on the Integrated Management of Water Resources in Rwanda. Working Paper for the NGO Protos, Final Report.

[17]   Toset, H.P.W., Gledisch, N.P. and Hegre, H. (2000) Shared Rivers and Interstate Conflict. Political Geography, 19, 971-996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298(00)00038-X

[18]   Gleditsch, N.P., Furlong, K., Hegre, H., Lacina, B. and Owen, T. (2006) Conflicts over Shared Rivers: Resource Scarcity or Fuzzy Boundaries? Political Geography, 25, 361-382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2006.02.004

[19]   Ronnfeldt, C.F. (1997) Three Generations of Environmental Research. Journal of Peace Research, 34, 473-482.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343397034004009

[20]   Nordås, R. and Gleditsch, N.P. (2007) Special Issue on Climate Change and Conflict. Political Geography, 26, 627-736.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.06.003

[21]   Wolf, A.T., Yoffe, S.B. and Giordano, M. (2003) International Waters: Identifying Basins at Risk. Water Policy, 5, 29-60.

[22]   Dudin, M. and Frentzen, C. (2015) Egypt-Ethiopia Conflict over Nile Waters Flares.
http://www.rappler.com/world/31553-egypt-ethiopia-conflict-over-nile-waters-flares

[23]   Sadoff, C.W. and Grey, D. (2002) Beyond the Rivers: The Benefits of Cooperation on International Rivers. Water Policy, 4, 389-403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1366-7017(02)00035-1

[24]   Zeitoun, M. and Mirumachi, N. (2008) Transboundary Water Interaction: Reconsidering Conflict and Cooperation. International Environmental Agreements, 8, 297-316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10784-008-9083-5

 
 
Top