JBM  Vol.3 No.8 , August 2015
The Impact of Some Widely Probiotic (Iraqi Probiotic) on Health and Performance
Probiotics (Greek: for life) are commonly defined as monoor mixed cultures of live microbes. When applied to animals or humans, they exert a beneficial effect on health of the host. These beneficial effects include disease treatment and prevention as well as improvement of nutrients’ digestion and absorption. Probiotic microorganisms are generally, albeit not exclusively, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. However, use of other bacterial species such as Bacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. as probiotic strains has also been described in several commercial products. This article intends to present an up-to-date version regarding Iraqi probiotics currently used and health benefit obtained from their consumption. However, the employing of microbes to promote a good health is very common, while the current review paper provides a comprehensive view of some common probiotics in Iraq as all strains are very important to be familiar with them before any applying process. Ideally, microbial probiotics should have a beneficial effect and not cause any harm to the host. Therefore, all strains must have been studied comprehensively prior to use in humans or animals and thus are given GRAS (Generally Regarded as Safe) status.

Cite this paper
Hamasalim, H. (2015) The Impact of Some Widely Probiotic (Iraqi Probiotic) on Health and Performance. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 25-36. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.38003.
[1]   Savage, D.C., Ogra, P.L., Mestecky, J., Lamm, M.E., Strober, W. and McGhee, J.R. (1998) Mucosal Microbiota. In: Bienestock, J., Ed., Mucosal Immunology, Academic Press, San Diego, 216-238.

[2]   Cebra, J.J., Jiang, H.Q., Sterzl, J. and Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H. (1999) The Role of Mucosal Microbiota in the Development and Maintenance of the Mucosal Immune System. In: Ogra, P.L., et al., Eds., Mucosal Immunology, Academic Press, New York, 267-280.

[3]   FAO/WHO (2002) Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization, London, Ontario.

[4]   Dunne, C., O’Mahony, L. and Murphy, L. (2001) In Vitro Selection Criteria for Probiotic Bacteria of Human Origin: Correlation with in Vivo Findings. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73, 386S-392S.

[5]   Hamasalim, H.J. (2009) The Effect of Different Levels of Feeding on Karadi Lambs Response to Local Iraqi Probiotics. Master Thesis, College of Agriculture and Animal Production, Sulaimani University, Sulaimani.

[6]   Nunes, C.S. (1994) Microbial Probiotics and Their Utilization in Husbandry. Revista portuguesade Ciencias veterinarias, 89, 166-174.

[7]   Yoruk, M.A., Gul, M., Hayirli, A. and Macit, M. (2004) The Effects of Supplementation of Humate and Probiotic on Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Period in Hens. Poultry Science, 83, 84-88.

[8]   Zinedine, A., Faid, M. and Benlemlith M. (2005) In Vitro Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 by Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sourdough Bread. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 7, 67-70.

[9]   Hassan, S.A. and Hassan, K.M. (2009) The Effect of Supplementation of Medicinal Plants and Probiotic on Growth Rate and Some Blood Parameters of Karadi Lambs. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 12, 53-63.

[10]   Hassan, S.A., Tawffek, J. A. and El-Saady, M.A. (2009) Effect Substitution Gradually Percentages of Reed Silage with Alfalfa Hay Fed with Probiotic to Awassi Lamb.2-On Carcass Characteristics. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 40, 138-147.

[11]   Hassan, S.A., Tawffek, J.A. and El-Saady, M.A. (2009) Effect Substitution Gradually Percentages of Reed Silage with Alfalfa Hay Fed with Probiotic to Awassi Lamb. 3-On Some Blood Parameters. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science, 40, 158-173.

[12]   El-Shaer, E.K.H. (2003) Nutritional Studies in Ruminants (Effect of Yeast Culture Supplementation and Concentrate: Roughage Ratio on Performance of Growing Lambs). Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura.

[13]   Aureli, P., Capurso, L., Castellazzi, A.M., Clerici, M., Giovannini, M., Morelli, L., Poli, A., Pregliasco, F., Salvini, F. and Zuccotti, G.V. (2011) Probiotics and Health: An Evidence-Based Review. Pharmacological Research, 63, 366- 376.

[14]   Hooper, L.V. and Macpherson, A.J. (2010) Immune Adaptations That Maintain Homeostasis with the Intestinal Microbiota. Nature Reviews Immunology, 10, 159-169.

[15]   Kamada, N., Seo, S.-U., Chen, G.Y. and Núñez, G. (2013) Role of the Gut Microbiota in Immunity and Inflammatory Disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 13, 321-335.

[16]   Lebeer, S., Vanderleyden, J. and De Keersmaecker, S.C. (2008) Genes and Molecules of Lactobacilli Supporting Probiotic Action. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72, 728-764.

[17]   Dethlefsen, L., Eckburg, P.B., Bik, E.M. and Relman, D.A. (2006) Assembly of the Human Intestinal Microbiota. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 517-523.

[18]   Savage, D. (1977) Microbiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Annual Review of Microbiology, 31, 107-133.

[19]   Simon, G.L. and Gorbach, S.L. (1984) Intestinal Flora in Health and Disease. Gastroenterology, 86, 174-193.

[20]   Rettger, L.F. and Cheplin, H.A. (1921) A Treatise on the Transformation of the Intestinal Flora, with Special Reference to the Implantation of Bacillus acidophlus. Yale University Press, New Haven.

[21]   Rask, C., Adlerberth, I., Berggren, A., Ahrén, I.L. and Wold, A.E. (2013) Differential Effect on Cell-Mediated Immunity in Human Volunteers after Intake of Different Lactobacilli. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 172, 321-332.

[22]   Naidu, K.S.B., Adam, J.K. and Govender, P. (2012) The Use of Probiotics and Safety Concerns: A Review. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6, 6871-6877.

[23]   Raoult, D. (2009) No Link between Probiotics and Obesity? Author Reply. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7, 901.

[24]   Line, E.J., Bailey, S.J., Cox, N.A., Stern, N.J. and Tompkins, T. (1998) Effect of Yeast-Supplemented Feed on Salmonella and Campylobacter Populations in Broilers. Poultry Science, 77, 405-410.

[25]   Mead, G.C. (2000) Prospects for Competitive Exclusion Treatment to Control Salmonellas and Other Food Borne Pathogens in Poultry. Veterinary Journal, 159, 111-123.

[26]   Mountzouris, K.C., Tsirtisikos, P. and Kalamara, E. (2007) Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Probiotic Containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus and Pediococcus Strains in Promotion Broiler Performance and Modulation Cecal Micro Flora Composition and Metabolic Actives. Poultry Science, 86, 309-317.

[27]   Bernet, M.F., Brassart, D., Neeser, J.R. and Servin, A.L. (1994) Lactobacillus acidophilus LA 1 Binds to Cultured Human Intestinal Cell Lines and Inhibits Cell Attachment and Cell Invasion by Enterovirulent Bacteria. Gut, 35, 483- 489.

[28]   Bedy, I.F. (2014) The Effect of Diet Fermentation with Locally Probiotics on Some Productive, Microbiological, Immunological and Histological Properties of Broiler Chicks. Doctoral Thesis, College of Agriculture at the University of Baghdad, Baghdad.

[29]   Mahmmod, Z.A., Abdulrazaq, H.S., Salem, A.S. and Sideq, R.M. (2014) Effects of Supplementation Probiotic and Dried Yogurt Powder on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Intestinal Micro Flora and Immunity of Broiler Chickens. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 26, 35-42.

[30]   Naji, S.A.H., Al-Zamil, I.F.B. and Al-Gharawi, J.K.M. (2015) The Effect of Feed Wetting and Fermentation on the Intestinal Flora, Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Broiler Chicks. College of Agriculture, Al-Qadisiya University-Iraq, Diwaniya.

[31]   Lammers, K.M., Vergopoulos, A. and Babel, N. (2005) Probiotic Therapy in the Prevention of Pouchitis Onset: Decreased Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-8, and Interferon-γ Gene Expression. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 11, 447-454.

[32]   Lin, P.W., Nasr, T.R. and Berardinelli, A.J. (2008) The Probiotic Lactobacillus GG May Augment Intestinal Host Defense by Regulating Apoptosis and Promoting Cytoprotective Responses in the Developing Murine Gut. Pediatric Research, 64, 511-516.

[33]   Pessi, T., Sutas, Y. and Saxelin, M. (1999) Antiproliferative Effects of Homogenates Derived from Five Strains of Candidate Probiotic Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 4725-4728.

[34]   Schiffrin, E.J., Rochat, F., Link-Amster, H., Aeschlimann, J.M. and Donnet-Hughes, A. (1995) Immunomodulation of Human Blood Cells Following the Ingestion of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science, 78, 491-497.

[35]   Gill, H.S., Rutherfurd, K.J. and Cross, M.L. (2001) Dietary Probiotic Supplementation Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity in the Elderly: An Investigation of Age-Related Immunological Changes. Journal of Clinical Immunology, 21, 264-271.

[36]   de Waard, R., Claassen, E. and Bokken, G.C. (2003) Enhanced Immunological Memory Responses to Listeria monocytogenes in Rodents, as Measured by Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH), Adoptive Transfer of DTH, and Protective Immunity, Following Lactobacillus casei Shirota Ingestion. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 10, 59-65.

[37]   Galyean, M.L., Nunnery, G.A., Defoor, P.J., Salyer, G.B. and Parson, C.H. (2000) Effect of Live Culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Strain 145 and 51) and Propionibacterium frendenreichii PF-24 on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Beef Steers. Burnett Center Progress Report No. 8.

[38]   Hassan, K.M. (2009) Effect of Some Feed Additives on Performance and Some Blood Parameters of Karadi Lambs. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Animal Production, Collage of Agriculture, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah.

[39]   Al-Tememy, A.T.D. (2013) Effect of Adding Two Levels of Iraqi Soluble Probiotic on Performance and Egg Quality of Japanese Quail. Diyala Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5, 81-91.

[40]   Sultan, K.H. and Abdul-Rahman, S.Y. (2011) Effect of Probiotic on Some Physiological Parameters in Broiler Breeders. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10, 626-628.

[41]   Abdullah, S.T. (2014) Effect of Probiotics Addition into Diet and Drinking Water in Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) on Certain Physiological and Biochemical Parameters. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Science, 28, 127-131.

[42]   Al-Bdeery, A.G.M. (2013) Effect of the Probiotics, Vitamins A and E on Growth Performance and Some Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens. Kufa Journal for Veterinary Medical Sciences, 4, 34-42.

[43]   Zubaidi, K.H.A. (2010) Effect of Iraqi Probiotic to Awassi Ewes Diet on Milk Production & Growth until Weaning. Journal of the University of Karbala Scientific, 8, 277-282.

[44]   Al-Ruubii, A.M.S, Hassan, S.A. and Al-Qabani, A.A.M. (2008) Effect of Iraqi Probiotic as an Additives Feed on Carcass Characteristics and Composition of Awassi Lambs. Journal of Kerbala University, 6, 4.

[45]   Taha, M.W. and Omar, B.T. (2013) Effect of Adding Different Levels of Soluble Iraqi Probiotic on Production Performance of Broiler Chickens. Journal of Tikrit University of Agricultural Sciences, 13, 127-135.

[46]   Caballero-Franco, C., Keller, K., De Simone, C. and Chadee, K. (2007) The VSL#3 Probiotic Formula Induces Mucin Gene Expression and Secretion in Colonic Epithelial Cells. AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 292, G315- G322.

[47]   Johnson-Henry, K.C., Donato, K.A. and Shen-Tu, G. (2008) Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Prevents Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Changes in Epithelial Barrier Function. Infection and Immunity, 76, 1340-1348.

[48]   Ewaschuk, J.B., Diaz, H. and Meddings, L. (2008) Secreted Bioactive Factors from Bifidobacterium infantis Enhance Epithelial Cell Barrier Function. AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 295, G1025-G1034.

[49]   Wehkamp, J., Harder, J. and Wehkamp, K. (2004) NF-κB- and AP-1-Mediated Induction of Human Beta Defensin-2 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917: A Novel Effect of a Probiotic Bacterium. Infection and Immunity, 72, 5750-5758.

[50]   Al-Samarrai, W.H., Ahmad, A.R.A.K., Al-Mashhadani, N.I., Abbas, S.M. and Fangan, K. (2014) Effect of Addition of Iraqi Probiotic on Blood Parameters in Awassi Lambs Feeding Barley Straw. Global Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 3, 84-90.

[51]   Hamasalim, H.J. and Abdulla, S.A. (2011) The Effect of Probiotic Supplementation with Levels of Feeding on Hematological and Biochemical Blood of Karadi Lambs. Proceedings of the 5th Scientific Conference of College of Agriculture, Tikrit, 26-27 April 2011, 200-210.

[52]   Hassan, S.A. and Hassan, K.M. (2009) Effects of Medicinal Plants and Probiotic Supplementation on Some Nutrients and Blood Parameters of Karadi Lambs. Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science, 1, 1-13.

[53]   Link-Amster, H., Rochat, F. and Saudan, K.Y. (1994) Modulation of a Specific Humoral Immune Response and Changes in Intestinal Flora Mediated through Fermented Milk Intake. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 10, 55-63.

[54]   Park, J.H., Um, J.I. and Lee, B.J. (2002) Encapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum Potentiates Intestinal IgA Production. Cellular Immunology, 219, 22-27.

[55]   De Vuyst, L. and Leroy, F. (2007) Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria: Production, Purification, and Food Applications. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 13, 194-199.

[56]   Spinler, J.K., Taweechotipatr, M. and Rognerud, C.L. (2008) Human-Derived Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Demonstrate Antimicrobial Activities Targeting Diverse Enteric Bacterial Pathogens. Anaerobe, 14, 166-171.

[57]   Ogawa, M., Shimizu, K. and Nomoto, K. (2001) Inhibition of in Vitro Growth of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains Due to Production of Lactic Acid. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 68, 135-140.

[58]   Dilworth, B.C. and Day, E.J. (1978) Lactobacillus Cultures in Brooder Diets. Poultry Science, 57, 1101.

[59]   AI-Jassim, R.A.M., AL-Ani, A.N., Hassan, S.A., Dana, T.K. and AL-Jerien, L.J. (1991) Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Rumen Undegradable Protein on Carcass Characteristics of Iraqi Awassi Lambs and Desert Goats. Small Ruminant Research, 4, 269-275.

[60]   Hassan, S.A. (2005) Effect of Barley Straw Treated with Liquid Diet on Its Daily Intake, Digestion Coefficient and Live Weight Gain of Awassi Lambs. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science, 36, 133-138.

[61]   Hassan, S.A., Al-Jassim, R.A.M., AL-Ani, A.N. and Abdullah, N.S. (1991) Effects of Dietary Supplement of Rumen Undegradable Protein upon Carcass Composition of Fat-Tail Awassi Sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 5, 65-74.

[62]   Hassan, S.A., Ahmed, A.A. and Alwan, M.F. (2008) Effect of Iraqi Probiotic Supplementation on Growth Rate, Blood Parameters and Carcass Characteristics of Awassi Lambs. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds. (Accepted)

[63]   Abedo, A.A., El-Ashry, M.A., El-Babawi, A.Y., Helal, F.I.S. and Fadel, M. (2005) Effect of Feeding Biologically Treated Sugar Beet Pulp on Growth Performance of Sheep. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 8, 579-590.

[64]   Ali, M.A. (2005) Effect of Probiotic Addition on Growth Performance of Growing Lambs Fed Different Roughages. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 8, 567-578.

[65]   Hassan, S.A. (2008) Effect of Some Medicinal Plants Supplementation on Daily Intake, Live Weight Gain and Carcass Characteristics of Awassi Lambs. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds. (Accepted)

[66]   Orr, C., Ware, D.R., Manfredi, E.T. and Hutheson, D.P. (1988) The Effect of Continuous Feeding of Lactobacillius acidophilus Strain BT1386 on Gain and Feed Efficiency of Feeder Calves. Journal of Animal Science, 66, 460-461.

[67]   Wysong, D.L. (2003) Retionale for Probiotic Supplementation. www.Wysong.net

[68]   Hassan, S.A. and Hassan, K.M. (2008) Response of Karadi Lambs to the Rosemary Officinal Supplementation Fed with Either Alkali Treated or Untreated Barley Straw Basal Diets. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds. (In Press)

[69]   Hassan, S.A. and Hassan, K.M. (2008) Effect of Graded Levels of Rumen Degradable Nitrogen and Nigella Sativa on Daily Intake, Live Weight Gain, Feed Conversion Ratio and Some Blood Parameters of Karadi Lambs. Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference for Agriculture Research, Bagdad, 24-26 October 2008, 168-177.

[70]   Abbas, M.R. (2005) Effect of Adding Iraqi Probiotic to the Ration on the Productive Performance of Caged Laying Hens. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 36, 97-104.

[71]   Al-Khalidi, R.A. (2005) Comparative Study of Imported Probiotic (Biomin) and Locally Probiotic (The Iraqi Probiotic) in Production, Performance and Intestinal Microbial Balance of Broiler. Master’s Thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad.

[72]   Fuller, R. (1989) Probiotics in Man and Animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66, 365-378.

[73]   Smirnov, A., Perez, R., Amit-Romach, E., Sklan, D. and Uni, Z. (2005) Mucin Dynamics and Microbial Populations in Chickens Small Intestine Are Changed by Dietary Prebiotic and Antibiotic Growth Promoter Supplementation. Journal of Nutrition, 135, 187-192.

[74]   Burkholder, K.M., Applegate, T.J. and Patterson, J.A. (2005) Performance and Intestinal Characteristics of Broilers Fedsalinomycin, Fructooligosaccharides, Probiotics and Synbiotics. Proceedings of the Southern Poultry Science Association Meeting, Atlanta, 20-21 January 2005.

[75]   Vandana, K.A. (2015) Probiotics: Nature’s Medicine. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases, 3, 219-228.

[76]   Leeson, S. and summers, J.D. (2005) Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham.

[77]   Kalavathy, R., Abdullah, N., Jalaludin, S., Wong, C.M.V.L. and Ho, Y.W. (2008) Effect of Lactobacillus Cultures and Oxytetracycline on the Growth Performance and Serum Lipids of Chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7, 385-389.

[78]   Deitch, E., Specian, E., Steffen, E. and Berg, R. (1990) Translocation of Lactobacillus murinus from the Gastrointestinal Tract. Current Microbiology, 20, 177-184.

[79]   Atuma, C., Strugala, V., Allen, A. and Holm, L. (2001) The Adherent Gastrointestinal Mucus Gel Layer: Thickness and Physical State in Vivo. American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology, 280, G922-G929.

[80]   Johansson, M.E., Phillipson, M., Petersson, J., Velcich, A., Holm, L. and Hansson, G.C. (2008) The Inner of the Two Muc2 Mucin-Dependent Mucus Layers in Colon Is Devoid of Bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 15064-15069.

[81]   Troost, F.J., van Baarlen, P., Lindsey, P., Kodde, A., de Vos, W.M., Kleerebezem, M. and Brummer, R.J. (2008) Identification of the Transcriptional Response of Human Intestinal Mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in Vivo. BMC Genomics, 9, 374.

[82]   Van Baarlen, P., Troost, F.J., van Hemert, S., van der Meer, C., de Vos, W.M., de Groot, P.J., Hooiveld, G.J., Brummer, R.J. and Kleerebezem, M. (2009) Differential NF-κB Pathways Induction by Lactobacillus plantarum in the Duodenum of Healthy Humans Correlating with Immune Tolerance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 2371-2376.

[83]   Al-Khafaji, Z.M. (2008) Probiotics (For Life). Published and Printed by House and Documentation Baghdad. Library of Control No. 84, 3-11.

[84]   Cao, G.T., Zing, X.F., Chen, A.G. and Yang C.M. (2013) Effects of a Probiotic, Enterococcus faecium, on Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology, Immune Response, and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens Challenged with Escherichia coli K88. Poultry Science, 92, 2949-2955.

[85]   Apata, D.F. (2011) Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens. Biotechnology Research International, 2011, 1-6.

[86]   Isolauri, E., Joensuu, J., Suomalainen, H., Luomala, M. and Vesikari, T. (1995) Improved Immunogenicity of Oral D x RRV Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine, 13, 310-312.

[87]   de Vrese, M., Rautenberg, P., Laue, C., Koopmans, M., Herremans, T. and Schrezenmeir, J. (2005) Probiotic Bacteria Stimulate Virus-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies Following a Booster Polio Vaccination. European Journal of Nutrition, 44, 406-413.

[88]   Paineau, D., Carcano, D., Leyer, G., Darquy, S., Alyanakian, M.A., Simoneau, G., Bergmann, J.F., Brassart, D., Bornet, F. and Ouwehand, A.C. (2008) Effects of Seven Potential Probiotic Strains on Specific Immune Responses in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 53, 107-113.

[89]   Kobayashi, N., Saito, T., Uematsu, T., Kishi, K., Toba, M., Kohda, N. and Suzuki, T. (2011) Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus pentosus Strain b240 Augments Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice. International Immunopharmacology, 11, 199-203.

[90]   Harish, K. and Varghese, T. (2006) Probiotics in Humans—Evidence Based Review. Calicut Medical Journal, 4, e3.

[91]   Anderson, J.W. and Gilliland, S.E. (1999) Effect of Fermented Milk (Yogurt) Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on Serum Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemic Humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 18, 43-50.

[92]   Bukowska, H., Pieczul-Mroz, J., Jastrzebska, M., Chelstowski, K. and Naruszewicz, M. (1998) Decrease in Fibrinogen and LDL Cholesterol Levels upon Supplementation of Diet with Lactobacillus plantarum in Subjects with Moderately Elevated Cholesterol. Atherosclerosis, 137, 437-438.

[93]   Naruszewicz, M., Johansson, M.L., Zapolska-Downar, D. and Bukowska, H. (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Smokers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 1249-1255.

[94]   Schaafsma, G., Meuling, W.J., van Dokkum, W. and Bouley, C. (1998) Effects of a Milk Product, Fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with Fructo-Oligosaccharides Added, on Blood Lipids in Male Volunteers. The European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52, 436-440.

[95]   Saed, S.H.M. (2005) Effect of Local Probiotic, Imported Yeast Baker and Multi Enzymes Supplementation in the Performance and Some Blood Biochemistry of the Broiler. Master’s Thesis, College of Agriculture, Sulaimani University, Sulaimani.

[96]   Santose, U., Tanaka, K. and Othani, S. (1995) Effect of Dried Bacillus subtilis Culture on Growth, Body Composition and Hepatic Lipogenic Enzyme Activity in Fimale Broiler Chicks. British Journal of Nutrition, 74, 523-529.

[97]   DeSmet, I., Van Hoorde, L., De Saeyer, N., Woestyne, M.V. and Verstraete, W. (1994) In Vitro Study of Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) Activity of BSH Isogenic Lactobacillus plantarum 80 Strains and Estimation of Cholesterol Lowering through Enhanced BSH Activity. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 7, 315-329.

[98]   Taranto, M.P., Medici, M., Perdigon, G., Ruiz Holgado, A.P. and Valdez, G.F. (1998) Evidence for Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in Hypercholesterolemic Mice. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 2336-2340.

[99]   Backhed, F., Ding, H., Wang, T., Hooper, L.V., Koh, G.Y. and Nagy, A. (2004) The Gut Microbiota as an Environmental Factor That Regulates Fat Storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 15718-15723.

[100]   Guarner, F. and Malagelada, J.R. (2003) Gut Flora in Health and Disease. The Lancet, 361, 512-519.

[101]   Isolauri, E., Sutas, Y., Kankaanpaa, P., Arvilommi, H. and Salminen, S. (2001) Probiotics: Effects on Immunity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73, 444S-450S.

[102]   Hooper, L.V., Wong, M.H., Thelin, A., Hansson, L., Falk, P.G. and Gordon J.I. (2001) Molecular Analysis of Commensal Host-Microbial Relationships in the Intestine. Science, 291, 881-884.

[103]   Abdulrahman, N.M. and Al shawi, S.A. (2014) Locally Produces Probiotic Their Effect on Total, Proteolytic Bacteria and Lipolytic Bacteria of Common Carp Fed Tow Level of Protein. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 13, 660-663.