IJG  Vol.6 No.8 , August 2015
Periodic Signals of the Milky Way Concealed in Terrestrial Sedimentary Basin Fills and in Planetary Magmatism?
Long periodic geodynamic processes with durations between 150 and 600 Million years appear to be in phase with similar galactic cycles, caused by the path of the solar system through the spiral arms of the Milky Way. This path is assumed by some authors to cause climate change due to cosmic ray fluctuations, affecting the cloud formation and the related albedo of the Earth, which periodically lead to glaciations every 150 Ma. With the glaciations, the sea level fluctuates accordingly. Subsequently, the varying sizes of shallow seas are causing periodic changes of the Moon’s tidal dissipation, which affects presumably other geodynamic processes on the Earth. The Moon may therefore synchronize directly or indirectly long periodic Phanerozoic cycles (sea level, orogeny, magmatism, sedimentation, etc.) with the Milky Way. As sea level fluctuations, orogeny, sedimentation and magmatism can be described as members of a geodynamic feedback system; no apparent reasons appear to be required to assign a cause of the cyclicity to agents outside of the galactic-climatically synchronized Earth-Moon system. However, recent observations of young volcanism on the near Earth terrestrial planets may require a new understanding. Magmatic/volcanic episodes on Venus, Mars and Mercury as well as on the Earth’s Moon are apparently contemporaneous thermal events accompanying increased magmatic/volcanic activities on the Earth, following a 300 myr cycle. Therefore, a collateral galactic thermal source within the Milky Way appears to be needed that only affects the interior of the planets without any recognizable direct effect on life and geology on the Earth. The search for such a source may lead to astrophysical questions, related to a spiral arm affected distribution of dark energy, dark matter or even specific neutrino sources. However, all possible astrophysical answers are outside of the author’s competence.

Cite this paper
Brink, H. (2015) Periodic Signals of the Milky Way Concealed in Terrestrial Sedimentary Basin Fills and in Planetary Magmatism?. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 831-845. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.68067.
[1]   Bradley, D.C. (2011) Secular Trends in the Geologic Record and the Supercontinent Cycle. Earth-Science Reviews, 108, 16-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.05.003

[2]   Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Hay, W.W. and de Boer, P.L. (2011) Phanerozoic Black Shales and the Wilson Cycle. Solid Earth Discussions, 3, 743-768. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/sed-3-743-2011

[3]   Snedden, J.W. and Liu, C. (2010) A Compilation of Phanerozoic Sea-Level Change, Coastal Onlaps and Recommended Sequence Designations. Search and Discovery, Article ID: 40594.

[4]   Bradley, D.C. (2008) Passive Margins through Earth History. Earth-Science Reviews, 91, 1-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.08.001

[5]   Berner, R.A. (1991) A Model for Atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic Time. American Journal of Science, 291, 339-376.

[6]   Tucker, M.E., Wright, V.P. and Dickson, J.A.D. (1990) Carbonate Sedimentology. Blackwell, London, 482 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444314175

[7]   Veevers, J.J. (1990) Tectonic-Climate Supercycle in the Billion-Year Plate-Tectonics Eon: Permian Pangean Icehouse Alternates with Cretaceous Dispersed-Continents Greenhouse. Sedimentary Geology, 68, 1-16.

[8]   Berner, R.A. and Canfield, D.E. (1989) A New Model for Atmospheric Oxygen over Phanerozoic Time. American Journal of Science, 289, 333-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.289.4.333

[9]   Tardy, Y., N’Kounkou, R. und Probst, J.L. (1989) The Global Water Cycle and Continental Erosion during Phanerozoic Time (570 my). American Journal of Science, 289, 455-483.

[10]   Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail P.R. (1987) Chronology of Fluctuating Sea Levels Since the Triassic. Science, 235, 1156-1167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.235.4793.1156

[11]   Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R. (1988) Mesozoic and Cenozoic Chronostratigraphy and Cycles of Sea Level Change. In: Wilgus, C.K., et al., Eds., Sea Level Changes: An Integrated Approach, SEPM Special Publication, Houston, 71-108.

[12]   Kazmierczak, J., Ittekkot, V. and Degens, E.T. (1985) Biocalcification through Time: Environmental Challenge and Cellular Response. In: Tucker, M.E., Wright, V.P. and Dickson, J.A.D., Eds., Pal?ontologische Zeitschrift, 59, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Hoboken, 15-33.

[13]   Hallam, A. (1984) Pre-Quaternary Sea-Level Changes. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 12, 205-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ea.12.050184.001225

[14]   Fischer, A.G. (1982) The Two Phanerozoic Supercycles. In: Berggren, W.A. and van Couvering, J.A., Eds., Catastrophes and Earth history, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 129-150.

[15]   Irving, E. and Pulliah, G. (1976) Reversals of the Geomagnetic Field, Magnetostratigraphy, and Relative Magnitude of Paleosecular Variation in the Phanerozoic. Earth-Science Reviews, 12, 35-64.

[16]   Creer, K.M. (1975) On a Tentative Correlation between Changes in the Geomagnetic Polarity Bias and Reversal Frequency and the Earth’s Rotation through Phanerozoic Time. In: Rosenberg, G.D. and Runcorn, S.K., Eds., Growth Rhythms and the History of the Earth’s Rotation, Wiley, London, 293-318.

[17]   Garrels, R.M. and Mackenzie, F.T. (1971) Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks. Norton, New York, 397.

[18]   Engel, A.E.J. and Engel, C.G. (1964) Continental Accretion and the Evolution of North America. In: Subramaniam, A.P. and Balakrishna, S., Eds., Advancing Frontiers in Geology and Geophysics, Indian Geophysical Union, Hyderabad, 17-37.

[19]   Gastil, G. (1960) The Distribution of Mineral Dates in Time and Space. American Journal of Science, 258, 1-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.258.1.1

[20]   Brown, M. (2010) Geodynamic Regimes and Tectonic Settings for Metamorphism: Relationship to the Supercontinent Cycle. Indian Journal of Geology, 80, 3-21.

[21]   Shaviv, N.J. and Veizer, J. (2003) Celestial Driver of Phanerozoic Climate? GSA TODAY, 13, 4-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/1052-5173(2003)013<0004:CDOPC>2.0.CO;2

[22]   Shaviv, N.J. (2002) Cosmic Ray Diffusion from the Galactic Spiral Arms, Iron Meteorites, and a Possible Climatic Connection? Physical Review Letters, 89, 051102.

[23]   Shaviv, N.J. (2003) The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth. New Astronomy, 8, 39-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1384-1076(02)00193-8

[24]   Hay, W.W., Migdisov, A., Balukhovsky, A.N., Wold, C.N., Fl?gel, S. and S?ding, E. (2006) Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean during the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 240, 3-46.

[25]   Wilkinson, B.H., Owen, R.M. and Carrol, A.R. (1985) Submarine Hydrothermal Weathering, Global Eustasy, and Carbonate Polymorphism in Phanerozoic Marine Oolites. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 55, 171-183.

[26]   Price, G.D. (1999) The Evidence and Implications of Polar Ice during the Mesozoic. Earth-Science Reviews, 48, 183-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(99)00048-3

[27]   McAllister Rees, P., Noto, C.R., Parrish, J.M. and Parrish, J.T. (2004) Late Jurassic Climates, Vegetation, and Dinosaur Distributions. Geology, 112, 643-653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/424577

[28]   Klemme, H.D. and Ulmishek, G.F. (1999) Effective Petroleum Source Rocks of the World: Stratigraphic Distribution and Controlling Depositional Factors. AAPG Bulletin, 75, 1809-1851.

[29]   Melott, A.L., Bambach, R.K., Petersen, K.D. and McArthur, J.M. (2012) A~60-Million-Year Periodicity Is Common to Marine-87Sr/86Sr, Fossil Biodiversity, and Large-Scale Sedimentation: What Does the Periodicity Reflect? The Journal of Geology, 120, 217-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/663877

[30]   Halevy, I., Peters, S. and Fischer, W.W. (2012) Sulfate Burial Constraints on the Phanerozoic Sulfur Cycle. Science, 337, 331-334 http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1220224

[31]   Meyers, S.R. and Peters, S.E. (2011) A 56 Million Year Rhythm in North American Sedimentation during the Phanerozoic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303, 174-180.

[32]   Bailor-Jones, C.A.L. (2009) The Evidence for and against Astronomical Impacts on Climate Change and Mass Extinctions: A Review. International Journal of Astrobiology, 8, 213-239.

[33]   Medvedev, M.V. and Melott, A.L. (2007) Do Extragalactic Cosmic Rays Induce Cycles in Fossil Diversity? The Astrophysical Journal, 664, 879-889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/518757

[34]   Rohde, R.A. and Muller, R.A. (2005) Cycles in Fossil Diversity. Nature, 434, 208.

[35]   Walker, L.J., Wilkinson, B.H. and Ivany, L.C. (2002) Continental Drift and Phanerozoic Carbonate Accumulation in Shallow-Shelf and Deep-Marine Settings. The Journal of Geology, 110, 75-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/324318

[36]   Brink, H.-J. (2006) Do the Global Geodynamic Cycles of the Phanerozoic Represent a Feedback System of the Earth and Is the Moon Involved as an Acting External Force? Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 157, 17-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/1860-1804/2006/0157-0317

[37]   Lisiecki, L.E. and Raymo, M.E. (2005) A Pliocene-Pleistocene Stack of 57 Globally Distributed Benthic d18O Re-cords. Paleoceanography, 20, PA1003.

[38]   Hern, C., Nordlund, U., van der Zwaan, K. and Lapido, K. (2001) Forward Prediction of Aeolian Systems Using Fuzzy Logic, Constrained by Data from Recent and Ancient Analogues. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 80, 53-70.

[39]   Strohmenger, C. and Strauss, C. (1996) Sedimentology and Palynofacies of the Zechstein 2 Carbonate (Upper Permian, NW Germany) Implication for Sequence Subdivision. Sedimentary Geology, 102, 55-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(95)00064-X

[40]   Beaufort, L. (1994) Climatic Importance of the Modulation of the 100 kyr Cycle Inferred from 16 m.y. Long Miocene Records. Paleoceanography, 9, 821-834http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94PA02115

[41]   Stothers, R.B. (1987) Beat Relationships between Orbital Periodicities in Insolation Theory. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 44, 1875-1876.

[42]   Jansen, E., Overpeck, J., Briffa, K.R., Duplessy, J.-C., Joos, F., Masson-Delmotte, V., Olago, D., Otto-Bliesner, B., Peltier, W.R., Rahmstorf, S., Ramesh, R., Raynaud, D., Rind, D., Solomina, O., Villalba, R. and Zhang, D. (2007) Palaeoclimate. In: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L., Eds., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 996 p.

[43]   Crowell, J.C. (1999) Pre-Mesozoic Ice Ages, Their Bearing on Understanding the Climate System. Memoir Geological Society of America, 192, 1-122.

[44]   Frakes, L.A., Francis, J.E. and Syktus, J.I. (1992) Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628948

[45]   Micheels, A. and Montenari, M. (2007) A Snowball Earth versus a Slushball Earth: Results from Neoproterozoic Climate Modeling Sensitivity Experiments, Geosphere. The Geological Society of America, 4, 401-410.

[46]   Hoffman, P.F. and Schrag, D.P. (2002) The Snowball Earth Hypothesis: Testing the Limits of Global Change. Terra Nova, 14, 129-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3121.2002.00408.x

[47]   Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P. and Schrag, D.P. (1998) A Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth. Science, 281, 1342-1346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5381.1342

[48]   Kirschvink, J.L. (1992) Late Proterozoic Low-Latitude Glaciation: The Snowball Earth. In: Schopf, J.W. and Klein, C., Eds., the Proterozoic Biosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 51-52.

[49]   Li, Z.X., Bogdanova, S.V., Collins, A.S., Davidson, A., De Waele, B., Ernst, R.E., Fitzsimons, I.C.W., Fuck, R.A., Gladkochub. D.P., Jacobs, J., Karlstrom, K.E., Lu, S., Natapov, L.M., Pease, V., Pisarevsky, S.A., Thrane, K. and Vernikovsky, V. (2008) Assembly, Configuration, and Break-Up History of Rodinia: A Synthesis. Precambrian Research, 160, 179-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2007.04.021

[50]   Scotese, C.R. (2004) A Continental Drift Flipbook. The Journal of Geology, 112, 729-741, and PALEOMAP Project. Department of Earth and Environ-mental Sciences, University of Texas, Arlington.

[51]   Hyde, W.T., Crowley, T.J., Baum, S.K. and Peltier, W. (2000) Neoproterozoic “Snowball Earth” Simulations with a Coupled Climate/Ice-Sheet Model. Nature, 405, 425-429.

[52]   Donnadieu, Y., Fluteau, F., Ramstein, G., Ritz, C. and Besse, J. (2003) Is There a Conflict between the Neoproterozoic Glacial Deposits and the Snowball Earth Interpretation: An Improved Understanding with Numerical Modeling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 208, 101-112,

[53]   Tziperman, E., Abbot, D.S., Ashkenazy, Y., Gildo, H., Pollard, D., Schoof, C.G. and Schrag, D.P. (2012) Continental Constriction and Oceanic Ice-Cover Thickness in a Snowball-Earth Scenario. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, C05016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007730

[54]   Brink, H.-J. (2014) [Signale der Milchstra?e verborgen in der Sedimentfüllung des Zentraleurop?ischen Beckensys-tems?]. [Signals of the Milky Way Hidden in the Sedimentary Fill of the Central European Basin System?] Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 166, 9-20.

[55]   Svensmark, H. (2007) Cosmoclimatology: A New Theory Emerges. Astronomy & Geophysics, 48, 18-24.

[56]   Svensmark, H. (1998) Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth’s Climate. Physical Review Letters, 81, 5027-5030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5027

[57]   Gies, D.R. and Helsel, J.W. (2005) Ice Age Epochs and the Sun’s Path through the Galaxy. Astrophysical Journal, 626, 844-848. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/430250

[58]   Veizer, J., Godderis, Y. and Francois, L.M. (2000) Evidence for Decoupling of Atmospheric CO2 and Global Climate during the Phanerozoic Eon. Nature, 8, 698-701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35047044

[59]   Englmaier, P., Pohl, M. and Bissantz, N. (2009) The Milky Way Spiral Arm Pattern. Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana, 1, 1-6.

[60]   Gillman, M. and Erenler, H. (2008) The Galactic Cycle of Extinction. International Journal of Astrobiology, 7, 17-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1473550408004047

[61]   Benjamin, R.A. (2008) The Spiral Structure of the Galaxy: Something Old, Something New. In: Beuther, H., Linz, H. and Henning, T., Eds., Massive Star Formation: Observations Confront Theory, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 387, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 375.

[62]   Feulner, G. (2011) Limits to Biodiversity Cycles from a Unified Model of Mass-Extinction Events. International Journal of Astrobiology, 10, 123-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1473550410000455

[63]   Van Der Marel, R.P., Alves, D.R., Hardy, E. and Suntzeff, N.B. (2002) New Understanding of Large Magellanic Cloud Structure, Dynamics, and Orbit from Carbon Star Kinematics. The Astronomical Journal, 124, 2639-2663.

[64]   Shattow, G. and Loeb, A. (2009) Implications of Recent Measurements of the Milky Way Rotation for the Orbit of the Magellanic Cloud. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 392, L21-L25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00573.x

[65]   Williams, G.E. (1975) Possible Relation between Periodic Glaciation and the Flexure of the Galaxy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 26, 361-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(75)90012-6

[66]   Muller, R.A. (2002) Measurement of the Lunar Impact Record for the Past 3.5 b.y. and Implication for the Nemesis Theory. In: Koeberl, C. and MacLeod, K.G., Eds., Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond: Boulder, Colorado, 356, Geological Society of America Special Paper, New York, 659-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0-8137-2356-6.659

[67]   Ruiz-Granados, B., Battaner, E., Calvo, J., Florido, E. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. (2012) Dark Matter, Magnetic Fields, and the Rotation Curve of the Milky Way. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 755, L23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/755/2/L23

[68]   Beck, R. (2009) Galactic and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields a Concise Review. Astrophysics and Space Sciences Transactions, 5, 43-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/astra-5-43-2009

[69]   Han, J.L. (2009) Improving Knowledge of Magnetic Fields of Our Milky Way. AAPPS Bulletin, 19, 39-41.

[70]   Haq, B.U. and Shutter, S.R. (2008) A Chronology of Paleozoic Sea-Level Changes. Science, 322, 64-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1161648

[71]   Haq, B.U. and Al-Qahtani, A.M. (2005) Phanerozoic Cycles of Sea-Level Change on the Arabian Platform. GeoArabia, 10, 127-160.

[72]   Hardenbol, J., Thierry, J., Farley, M.B., Jacquin, T., de Graciansky, P.C. and Vail, P. (1998) Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequence Chronostratigraphic Framework of European Basins. In: De Graciansky, P.C., et al., Eds., Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins, 60, charts 1-8, SEPM Special Publication, Houston, 3-13.

[73]   Schlanger, S.O., Jenkyns, H.C. and Premoli-Silva, I. (1981) Volcanism and Vertical Tectonics in the Pacific Basin Related to Global Cretaceous Transgressions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 52, 435-449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(81)90196-5

[74]   Gurnis, M. (1990) Ridge Spreading, Subduction, and Sea Level Fluctuations. Science, 250, 970-972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.250.4983.970

[75]   Kominz, M.A. (1984) Oceanic Ridge Volume and Sea-Level Change—An Error Analysis. In: Schlee, J.S., Ed., Interregional Unconformities and Hydrocarbon Accumulation, 36, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, 109-127.

[76]   Harrison, C.G.A., Brass, G.W., Saltzman, E., Sloan, J., Southam, H.J. and Whitman, J.M. (1981) Sea Level Variations, Global Sedimentation Rates and the Hypsographic Curve. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 54, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(81)90064-9

[77]   Pitman III, W.C. (1978) Relationship between Eustacy and Stratigraphic Sequences of Passive Margins. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 89, 1389-1403.

[78]   Harrison, C.G.A. (2002) Power Spectrum of Sea Level Change over Fifteen Decades of Frequency. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 3, 1-17.

[79]   Atri, D. and Melott, A.L. (2011) Biological Implications of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Induced Muon Flux in the Extragalactic Shock Model. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 38, L19807.

[80]   Oliveira, M., Nápoles, S. and Oliveira, S. (2012) Fourier Analysis: Graphical Animation and Analysis of Experimental Data with Excel. Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE), 5, 18 p.

[81]   Hartmann, W.K. and Neukum, G. (2001) Cratering Chronology and the Evolution of Mars. Space Science Reviews, 96, 165-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011945222010

[82]   Werner, S.C. (2009) The Global Martian Volcanic Evolutionary History. Icarus, 20, 44-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.019

[83]   Robbins, S. J., Di Achille, G. and Hynek, B. M. (2011) The Volcanic History of Mars: High-Resolution Crater-Based Studies of the Calderas of 20 Volcanoes, Icarus, 211, 1179-1203.

[84]   Basilevsky, A.T. and Head, J.W. (2002) Venus: Analysis of the Degree of Impact Crater Deposit Degradation and Assessment of Its Use for Dating Geological Units and Features. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 5-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JE001584

[85]   Thomas, R.J., Rothery, D.A., Conway, S.J. and Anand, M. (2014) Long-Lived Explosive Volcanism on Mercury. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 6084-6092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061224

[86]   Thomas, R. J., Rothery, D.A., Conway, S.J. and Anand, M. (2015) The Timing and Distribution of Pyroclastic Volcanism on Mercury. Dept of Physical Sciences, the Open University, Milton Keynes.

[87]   Braden, S.E., Stopar, J.D., Robinson, M.S., Lawrence, S.J., van der Bogert, C.H. and Hiesinger, H. (2014) Evidence for Basaltic Volcanism on the Moon within the Past 100 Million Years. Nature Geoscience, 7, 787-791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2252

[88]   Koupelis, T. and Kuhn, K. F. (2007) In Quest of the Universe. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, 492.