OJPM  Vol.5 No.8 , August 2015
Maize Storage and Consumption Practices of Farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for Mycotoxin Contamination
In Tanzania, maize is the main complementary food for infants and primary school children. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through complementary foods by Tanzanian infants is of concern. The maize storage and consumption practices of farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania and their implications for mycotoxin contamination of maize flour were investigated. A convenient sample of 60 farmers in Seza Kofi and Kwabojo villages in Mgambo and Ndolwa wards were surveyed. The majority of farmers (95%) stored their maize in the house using the roofing and sack methods. Most farmers (67%) did not visually or mechanically sort defective maize kernels before storage. In both villages, the most important storage problems reported by the farmers were rodents and insects. Forty two percent of the farmers surveyed indicated that they consumed dehulled maize, while 35 and 12% consumed non-dehulled and mixed (dehulled and non-dehulled), respectively. The preponderance of storage practices described was unfavorable to mycotoxin reduction in stored maize. It is therefore recommended that appropriate, area-specific farmer training regarding recommended storage practices including storage methods, effective management of storage pests and healthy maize preparation and consumption practices be conducted. Additionally, further research on maize storage and consumption practices for Tanzania is needed.

Cite this paper
Shabani, I. , Kimanya, M. , Gichuhi, P. , Bonsi, C. and Bovell-Benjamin, A. (2015) Maize Storage and Consumption Practices of Farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for Mycotoxin Contamination. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 330-339. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.58037.
[1]   Policy Brief (2010) Mitigating the Impact of Drought in Tanzania: The WEMA Intervention.

[2]   Barreiro-Hurle, J. (2012) Analysis of Incentives and Disincentives for Maize in the United Republic of Tanzania. Technical Notes Series, MAFAP, FAO, Rome.

[3]   Hell, K., Fandohan, P., Bandyopadhyay, R., kiewick, S. Sikora, R. and Cotty, P.J. (2008) Pre- and Postharvest Management of Aflatoxin in Maize: An African Perspective. In: Leslie, J.F., Bandyopadhyay, R. and Visconti, A., Eds., Mycotoxins: Detection Methods, Management, Public Health and Agricultural Trade, Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, 219-230.

[4]   Fandohan, P., Hell, K., Marasas, W.F.O. and Wingfield, M.J. (2003) Infection of Maize by Fusarium Species and Contamination with Fumonisin in Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12, 570-579.

[5]   Kimanya, E.M, De Meulenaer, B., Roberfroid, D., Lachat, C. and Kolsteren, P. (2010) Fumonisin Exposure through Maize in Complementary Foods Is Inversely Associated with Linear Growth of Infants in Tanzania. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 54, 1659-1657.

[6]   Mboya, R., Tongoona, P., Yoo, K.S, Derera, J., Mudhara, M. and Langyintuo, A. (2011) The Quality of Maize Stored Using Roof and Sack Storage Methods in Katumba Ward, Rungwe District, Tanzania: Implications on Household Food Security. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 2, 189-199.

[7]   Kimanya, M., De Meulenaer, B., Bendantinguka, T., Ndomondo-Sigonda, M., Van Camp, J. and Kolsteren, P. (2008) Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins with Aflatoxins in Home Stored Maize for Human Consumption in Rural Villages of Tanzania. Food Additives & Contaminants, 25, 1353-1364.

[8]   Afolabi, C.G., Bandyopadhyay, R., Leslie, J.F. and Ekpo, E.J.A. (2006) Effect of Sorting on Incidence an Occurrence of Fumonisins and Fusarium verticillioides on Maize from Nigeria. Journal of Food Protection, 91, 279-286.

[9]   Pearson, T.C., Wicklow, D.T. and Brabec, D.L. (2009) Characteristics and Sorting of White Food Corn Contaminated with Mycotoxins. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 26, 109-113.

[10]   Riley, R.T. and Norred, W.P. (1999) Mycotoxin Prevention and Decontamination—A Case Study on Maize. FNA/ANA, 23, 25-30.

[11]   Wicklow, D.T. and Pearson, T.C. (2014) Detection and Removal of Single Mycotoxin Contaminated Maize Grains Following Harvest. 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 15-18 October 2006, Campinas, 109-119.

[12]   Bilgrami, K.S., Ranjan, K.S. and Choudhary, A.K. (1991) Aflatoxin Contamination in Monocropping and Mixed Cropping Mustard Crops of Bihar. Indian Phytopathology, 44, 529-531.

[13]   McMillian, W.W., Widstrom, N.W. and Wilson, D.M. (1987) Impact of Husk Type and Species of Infesting Insects on Aflatoxin Contamination in Preharvest Corn at Tifton, Georgia. Journal of Entomological Science, 22, 307-310.

[14]   Wright, V.F. (1992) Assessment of Insect Infestation in Stored Maize and Their Relationship to Aspergiluus flavus Contamination. In: Semple, R.L. and Frio, A.S., Eds., Mycotoxin Prevention and Control in Food Grains, UNDP/FAO REGNET and ASEAN Grain Postharvest Programme, Bangkok, 110-116.

[15]   Vowotor, K.A., Bosque-Perez, N.A. and Ayertey, J.N. (1995) Effect of Maize Variety and Storage form on the Development of Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Journal of Stored Products Research, 31, 29-36.

[16]   Ogah, C.O., Coker, H.A. and Adepoju-Bello, A.A. (2011) Pesticide Residue Levels in Maize Samples from Markets in Lagos State, Nigeria. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 21, 169-174.

[17]   Mienda, B.S. (2011) Preliminary Report of Dehulling Effect on the Occurrence and Distribution of Aspergillus flavus in Maize Grains Stored in Mubi Market. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2, 612-616. Mutambuki, K. and Ngatia, C.M. (2008) Loss Assessment of On-Farm Stored Maize in Semi-Arid Area of Kitui District, Kenya. 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 15-18 October 2006, Campinas.

[18]   Payne, G.A. (1986) Aspergillus flavus Infection of Maize. In: Zuber, M.S., Lillehoj, E.B. and Renfro, B.L., Eds., Aflatoxin in Maize: Proceedings of the Workshop, CIMMYT, Mexico, 119-129.

[19]   Siwela, A.H., Siwela, M., Matindi, G., Dube, S. and Nziramasanga, N. (2005) Decontamination of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Dehulling. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 2535-2538.

[20]   Hosney, R.C. (1994) Principles of Cereal Science and Technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St Paul, 21-24.