Statistic Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2014) Statistical Handbook of Japan 2014. http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c0117.htm#c02
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2014) Summary of Vital Statistics. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/database/db-hw/populate/dl/02.pdf
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2013) Annual Health, Labour and Welfare Report 2012-2013 Health and Medical Services. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/wp/wp-hw6/dl/02e.pdf
 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2012) A Report of the Study Group on Publicity and Enlightenment of Creating a Peaceful and Reliable End-of-life Stage. For Better Lives and Better Farewells. http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2012/04/20120426006/20120426006-3.pdf
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2013) Handbook of Health and Welfare Statistics 2013 Number of Deaths and Percentage Distribution by Place of Occurrence, by Year. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/database/db-hh/1-2.html
 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2013) Health Care Resources. http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?DataSetCode=HEALTH_STAT#
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2008) Trends in Households with Persons Aged 65 Years and Over by Household Structure, 1975-2008. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/database/db-hss/cslc-tables.html
 Watanabe, M., Kono, K., Kawamura, K. and Matsuura, T. (1998) Factors Influencing Admission to Nursing Homes among Frail and Bedridden Elderly Persons Receiving Public Health and Welfare Services. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 45, 45-55.
 Yamagishi, A., Morita, T., Miyashita, M., Yoshida, S., Akizuki, N., Shirahige, Y., Akiyama, M. and Eguchi, K. (2012) Preferred Place of Care and Place of Death of the General Public and Cancer Patients in Japan. Supportive Care in Cancer, 20, 2575-2582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-011-1373-8
 Fukui, S., Fujita, J. and Yoshiuchi, K. (2013) Associations between Japanese People’s Concern about Family Caregiver Burden and Preference for End-of-Life Care Location. Journal of Palliative Care, 29, 22-28.
 Miyashita, M., Sato, K., Morita, T. and Suzuki, M. (2008) Effect of a Population-Based Educational Intervention Focusing on End-of-Life Home Care, Life-Prolonging Treatment and Knowledge about Palliative Care. Palliative Medicine, 22, 376-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269216308090073
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2004) The Place of End-of-Life Care. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/shingi/2004/07/s0723-8d8.html
 Mendelson, D. and Jost, T.S. (2003) A Comparative Study of the Law of Palliative Care and End-of-Life Treatment. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 31, 130-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-720X.2003.tb00063.x
 Minooka, M. (2008) The Importance of the Advance Directive and the Difficulties of Its Prevalence. Japanese Journal of Cancer and Chemotherapy, 35, 41-42.
 Nagura, M. (2013) To Aim at Better Home Medical Care. Clinical Neurology, 53, 1296-1298. http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.53.1296
 Teno, J.M., Nelson, H.L. and Lynn, J. (1994) Advance Care Planning Priorities for Ethical and Empirical Research. The Hastings Center Report, 24, S32-S36. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3563482?origin=crossref
 Detering, K.M., Hancock, A.D., Reade, M.C. and Silvester, W. (2010) The Impact of Advance Care Planning on End of Life Care in Elderly Patients: Randomised Controlled Trial. British Medical Journal, 340, c1345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1345
 Israel, B.A., Checkoway, B., Schulz, A. and Zimmerman, M. (1994) Health Education and Community Empowerment: Conceptualizing and Measuring Perceptions of Individual, Organizational, and Community Control. Health Education & Behavior, 21, 149-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100203
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2014) Attitude Survey Report about the Medical Care in the End-of-Life. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/iryou/zaitaku/dl/h260425-02.pdf
 Iwata, K. (2008) Advance Directive at General Medicine Outpatient Clinic. The Japanese Journal of Family Practice, 14, 18-24. (In Japanese)
 Sato, T. and Makigami, K. (2008) Terminal Care Education and Consultation Activities in Advance of the Critical Stage of Disease by Attending Physicians at a Rehabilitation Unit. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics, 45, 401-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.3143/geriatrics.45.401
 Kawamoto, T., Sunada, S., Shigematsu, K., Tamura, R., Matsuda, M., Hatanaka, N., Sanemori, N., Nakanishi, T., Okuda, M. and Kamiike, W. (2014) Comparison of the Registration of Living Will and Advance Directives between Cancer and Non-Cancer Patients in Electronic Medical Records. Iryo, 68, 392-398.
 Mayumi, T., Watanabe, I., Arishima, T., Onodera, M., Takahashi, H., Takezawa, J. and Katsumata, Y. (2008) Living Will in Abdominal Acute Medicine in Japan. Journal of Abdominal Emergency Medicine, 28, 673-677.
 Fukuda, T. (2012) DNAR in Out-of-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, 23, 101-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.3893/jjaam.23.101
 Uchiyama, T., Atsumi, T., Suzuki, M., Ito, M., Shimizu, T. and Ohashi, T. (2010) Efficacy of a Novel Format for the Advance Directive in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Neurological Therapeutics, 27, 77-81.
 Matsui, M. (2010) Effectiveness of End-of-Life Education among Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Nursing Ethics, 17, 363-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733009355372
 Hiroshima Prefectural Government (2014) Population Aging Rate in the City Area of the Hiroshima.
 Hiroshima Prefectural Government (2012) The Number of Deads and Place of the Death in the City Area of the Hiroshima. http://www.pref.hiroshima.lg.jp/site/toukei/24-jinnkoudoutaitoukeinennpou.html
 Bloom, B.S., Hastings, J.T. and Madaus, G.F. (1971) Handbook on Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
 Murphy, C.P., Sweeney, M.A. and Chiriboga, D. (2000) An Educational Intervention for Advance Directives. Journal of Professional Nursing, 16, 21-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S8755-7223(00)80008-3
 Hamayoshi, M. and Kono, A. (2014) Reliability and Validity of the Advance Directive Knowledge Test and Attitude Survey for Japanese Local Older Residents. Journal of Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing, 16, 32-40.
 Ende, J., Kazis, L., Ash, A. and Moskowitz, M.A. (1989) Measuring Patients’ Desire for Autonomy: Decision Making and Information-Seeking Preferences among Medical Patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 4, 23-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02596485
 Ohki, M. and Fukuhara, S. (1995) Development and Validation of the Autonomy Preference Index for Japanese Subjects. Japan Health Psychology, 3, 11-24.
 Mitoku, K., Takahashi, T. and Hosi, T. (2006) Health Relation Factors of Elderly People and Subjective Feeling of Health. Kawasaki Mecical Welfare Journal, 15, 411-421.
 Statistic Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2014) Statistical Observations of Shi, KU, Machi, Mura 2014. http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/List.do?bid=000001053740&cycode=0
 Japan Medical Association Research Institute (2014) Attitude Survey Report about the Medical Care in Japan. http://www.jmari.med.or.jp/download/WP331.pdf
 Aging with Dignity (1998) Five Wishes.
 Caring Connections (2004) Advance Directives. http://www.caringinfo.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3289
 Japan Society for Dying with Dignity (1976) Living Will. http://www.songenshi-kyokai.com/living_will.htm
 Hoshino, K. (1995) Autonomous Decision Making and Japanese Tradition. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 4, 71-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180100005661
 Johnstone, M. and Kanitsaki, O. (2009) Ethics and Advance Care Planning in a Culturally Diverse Society. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 20, 405-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043659609340803
 Munakata, T. (1996) Health and Disease Analyzed by Behavioral Science. Medical Friend Co. Ltd., Tokyo.
 Hayashi, M., Hasui, C., Kitamura, F., Murakami, M., Takeuchi, M., Katoh, H. and Kitamura, T. (2000) Respecting Autonomy in Difficult Medical Settings: A Questionnaire Study in Japan. Ethics & Behavior, 10, 51-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327019EB1001_4
 Alano, G.J., Pekmezaris, R., Tai, J.Y., Hussain, M.J., Jeune, J., Louis, B., El-Kass, G., Ashraf, M.S., Reddy, R., Lesser, M. and Wolf-Klein, G.P. (2010) Factors Influencing Older Adults to Complete Advance Directives. Palliative & Supportive Care, 8, 267-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1478951510000064