MSA  Vol.6 No.8 , August 2015
The Effect of Silane Treated Sugar Cane Bagasse on Mechanical, Thermal and Crystallization Studies of Recycled Polypropylene
ABSTRACT
This article describes the results of an investigation on the influence of loading silane treated sugar cane bagasse (SB) on the morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene (rPP). The samples are prepared through melt extrusion followed by injection moulding. The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that SB-rPP composites have a fairly strong interfacial interaction and a change in crystallization for the highest containing SB composite, however, some fibre pull-outs are observed as the SB content is increased. The interaction influences the thermal and mechanical properties of the samples in a complex way. There are strong indications of a stronger interfacial interaction on the highest containing SB composite, which is supposedly accountable for the increased crystallinity and melting temperature.

Cite this paper
Motaung, T. , Linganiso, L. , John, M. and Anandjiwala, R. (2015) The Effect of Silane Treated Sugar Cane Bagasse on Mechanical, Thermal and Crystallization Studies of Recycled Polypropylene. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 724-733. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.68074.
References
[1]   Mwaikambo, L.Y. and Ansell, M.P. (2001) Chemical Modification of Hemp, Sisal and Kapok Fibres by Alkalization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 84, 2222-2234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.10460

[2]   Rosa, M.F., Medeiros, E.S., Malmonge, J.A. Gregorski, K.S., Wood, D.F., Mattoso, L.H.C., Glenn, G., Orts, W.J. and Imam, S.H. (2010) Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Coconut Husk Fibers: Effect of Preparation Conditions on Their Thermal and Morphological Behavior. Carbohydrate Polymers, 81, 83-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.01.059

[3]   John, M.J. and Thomas, S. (2008) Biofibres and Biocomposites. Carbohydrate Polymers, 71, 343-364.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.05.040

[4]   White, N.M. and Ansell, M.P. (1983) Straw-Reinforced Polyester Composites. Journal of Materials Science, 18, 1549-1556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01111977

[5]   Gerrard, J. and Kandlikar, M. (2007) Is European End-of-Life Legislation Living up to Expections? Assessing the Impact of the ELV Directive on “Green” Innovation and Vehicle Recovery. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15, 17-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.06.004

[6]   Soden, J. and Stewart, G.F.J. (2010) Natural Composites with 3D Woven Reinforcement for New Applications Areas, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 4, 139-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbmb.2010.1078

[7]   Luz, S.M., Pires A.C. and Ferrão, P.M.C. (2010) Environmental Benefits of Substituting Talc by Sugarcane Bagasse Fibers as Reinforcement in Polypropylene Composites: Ecodesign and LCA as Strategy for Automotive Components, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54, 1135-1144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.03.009

[8]   Jústiz-Smith, N.G., Virgo, G.J. and Buchanan, V.E. (2008) Potential of Jamaican Banana, Coconut Coir and Bagasse Fibres as Composite Materials. Materials Characterization, 59, 1273-1278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2007.10.011

[9]   Placketta, D., Andersen, T.L., Pedersen, W.B. and Nielsen, L. (2003) Biodegradable Composites Based on L-Polylac-tide and Jute Fibres. Composites Science and Technology, 63, 1287-1296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(03)00100-3

[10]   Hofsetz, K. and Silva, M.A. (2012) Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse: Energy and Non-Energy Consumption. Biomass & Bioenergy, 46, 564-573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.06.038

[11]   Dweiri, R. and Azhari, C.H. (2004) Thermal and Flow Property-Morphology Relationship of Sugarcane Bagasse Fibre-Filled Polyamide 6 Blends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 92, 3744-3754.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.20359

[12]   Stael, G.C., Tavares M.I.B. and d’Almeida, J.R.M. (2001) Impact Behaviour of Sugarcane Bagasse Waste-EVA Composites. Polymer Testing, 20, 869-872.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9418(01)00014-9

[13]   Youssef, H.A., Ismail, M.R., Ali, M.A.M. and Zahran, A.H. (2008) Effect of the Various Coupling Agents on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Thermoplastic-Bagasse Fiber Composites. Polymer Composites, 29, 1057-1065.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pc.20473

[14]   Cerqueira, E.F., Baptista C.A.R.P. and Mulinaria, D.R. (2011) Mechanical Behaviour of Polypropylene Reinforced Sugarcane Bagasse Fibers Composites. Procedia Engineering, 10, 2046-2051.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.339

[15]   de Carvalho Neto, A.G.V., Ganzerli, T.A., Cardozo, A.L., Fávaro, S.L., Pereira, A.G.B., Girotto, E.M. and Radovanovic, E. (2014) Development of Composites Based on Recycled Polyethylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber. Polymer Composites, 35, 768-774.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pc.22720

[16]   Huang, Z., Wang, N., Zhang, Y., H. H., Luo, Y. (2012) Effect of Mechanical Activation Pretreatment on the Properties of Sugarcane Bagasse/Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43, 114-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2011.09.025

[17]   Wang, L.T., Tong, Z.H., Ingram, L.O., Cheng, Q.Z. and Matthews, S. (2013) Green Composites of Poly (Lactic Acid) and Sugarcane Bagasse Residues from Bio-Refinery Processes. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 21, 780-788.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10924-013-0601-3

[18]   Fávaro, S.L., Lopes, M.S., Neto, A.G.V.C., Santana, R.R. and Radovanovic, E. (2010) Chemical, Morphological, and Mechanical Analysis of Rice Husk/Post-Consumer Polyethylene Composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 154-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.09.021

[19]   Goulart, S.A.S., Oliveira, T.A., Teixeira, A., Miléo P.C. and Mulinari, D.R. (2011) Mechanical Behaviour of Polypropylene Reinforced Palm Fibers Composites. Procedia Engineering, 10, 2034-2039.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.337

[20]   Longo, C., Savaris, M., Zeni, M., Brandalise, N.R. and Grisa, A.M.C. (2011) Degradation Study of Polypropylene (PP) and Bioriented Polypropylene (BOPP) in the Environment. Materials Research, 14, 442-448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392011005000080

[21]   Saujanya, C. and Radhakrishnan, S. (2001) Structure Development and Crystallization Behaviour of PP/Nanoparticu-late Composite. Polymer, 42, 6723-6731.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0032-3861(01)00140-9

[22]   Mi, Y.L., Chen, X.Y. and Guo, Q.P. (1997) Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Crystallization and Interfacial Morphology. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 64, 1267-1273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19970516)64:7<1267::AID-APP4>3.0.CO;2-H

[23]   Motsoeneng, T.S., Luyt, A.S. and van Reenen, A.J. (2014) Investigation of the Crystalline Phase Morphology of a β-Nucleated Impact Polypropylene Copolymer. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.39923

[24]   Morent, R., Geyter, N.D., Leys, C., Gengembre, L. and Payen, E. (2008) Comparison between XPS-and FTIR-Analy-sis of Plasma-Treated Polypropylene Film Surfaces. Surface and Interface Analysis, 40, 597-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sia.2619

[25]   Kabir, M.M., Wang, H., Lau, K.T. and Cardona, F. (2012) Chemical Treatments on Plant-Based Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites: An Overview. Composites Part B: Engineering, 43, 2883-2892.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.04.053

[26]   Ramaraj, B. (2007) Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103, 3827-3832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.25333

 
 
Top