MSA  Vol.6 No.8 , August 2015
Effects of Mechanical Fibrillation on Cellulose Reinforced Poly(Ethylene Oxide)
ABSTRACT
The objective of this work was to extract sugar bagasse cellulose nanofibres by using three different processes, namely: mechanical fibrillation, bleaching and mild acid hydrolysis. Cellulose nano-fibres with diameters in the nano range and estimated lengths of several micrometers were obtained from SB. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis confirmed the removal of hemicellulose and lignin components by alkali/bleaching and acid hydrolysis. XRD results showed an increase in crystalline which resulted from the removal of lignin and hemicellulose, especially after mercerization and mild acid hydrolysis. Moreover, the extracted cellulose nanofibres were used to reinforce poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). PEO was dissolved in water and mixing with the cellulose nanofibres suspension followed by casting. The nanocomposites were characterized by using FTIR analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-Ray diffractometry and tensile tester. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was enhanced depending on the treatment of the SB fibres.

Cite this paper
Motaung, T. and Mokhena, T. (2015) Effects of Mechanical Fibrillation on Cellulose Reinforced Poly(Ethylene Oxide). Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 713-723. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.68073.
References
[1]   Oun, A.A. and Rhim, J.-W. (2015) Preparation and Characterization of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose/Cotton Linter Cellulose Nanofibril Composite Films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 127, 101-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.03.073

[2]   Azizi Samir, M.A.S., Alloinand, F. and Dufresne, A. (2005) Review of Recent Research into Cellulosic Whiskers, Their Properties and Their Application in Nanocomposite Field. Biomacromolecules, 6, 612-626.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm0493685

[3]   Tonoli, G.H.D., Teixeira, E.M., Corrêa, A.C., Marconcini, J.M., Caixeta, L.A., Pereira-da-Silvaand, M.A. and Mattoso, L.H.C. (2012) Cellulose Micro/Nanofibres from Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp: Preparation and Properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 89, 80-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.02.052

[4]   Mtibe, A., Linganiso, L.Z., Mathew, A.P., Oksman, K., Johnand, M.J. and Anandjiwala, R.D. (2015) A Comparative Study on Properties of Micro and Nanopapers Produced from Cellulose and Cellulose Nanofibres. Carbohydrate Poly-mers, 118, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.10.007

[5]   Spence, K.L., Venditti, R.A., Rojas, O.J., Habibi, Y. and Pawlak, J.J. (2011) A Comparative Study of Energy Consumption and Physical Properties of Microfibrillated Cellulose Produced by Different Processing Methods. Cellulose, 18, 1097-1111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10570-011-9533-z

[6]   Zhou, C.J., Chu, R., Wu, R. and Wu, Q.L. (2011) Electrospun Polyethylene Oxide/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Nanofibrous Mats with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Microstructures. Biomacromolecules, 12, 2617-2625.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm200401p

[7]   Mandaland, A. and Chakrabarty, D. (2011) Isolation of Nanocellulose from Waste Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB) and Its Characterization. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1291-1299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.06.030

[8]   Li, J., Wei, X., Wang, Q., Chen, J., Chang, G., Kong, L., Suand, J. and Liu, Y. (2012) Homogeneous Isolation of Nanocellulose from Sugarcane Bagasse by High Pressure Homogenization. Carbohydrate Polymers, 90, 1609-1613.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.07.038

[9]   Hugo, T.J. (2010) Pyrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.

[10]   Devnarain, P., Arnold, D. and Davis, S. (2002) Production of Activated Carbon from South African Sugarcane Bagasse. Proceedings of South African Sugar Technology Association, Vol. 76, 477-489.

[11]   Cerqueira, E.F., Baptista, C.A.R.P. and Mulinari, D.R. (2011) Mechanical Behaviour of Polypropylene Reinforced Sugarcane Bagasse Fibers Composites. Procedia Engineering, 10, 2046-2051.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.339

[12]   Habibi, Y., Lucia, L.A. and Rojas, O.J. (2010) Cellulose Nanocrystals: Chemistry, Self-Assembly, and Applications. Chemical reviews, 110, 3479-3500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr900339w

[13]   Chen, Y., Liu, C., Chang, P.R., Cao, X. and Anderson, D.P. (2009) Bionanocomposites Based on Pea Starch and Cellulose Nanowhiskers Hydrolyzed from Pea Hull Fibre: Effect of Hydrolysis Time. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75, 607-615.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.11.030

[14]   Ten, E., Bahr, D.F., Li, B., Jiang, L. and Wolcott, M.P. (2012) Effects of Cellulose Nanowhiskers on Mechanical, Dielectric, and Rheological Properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/Cellulose Nanowhisker Composites. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 51, 2941-2951.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie2023367

[15]   Ten, E., Jiang, L. and Wolcott, M.P. (2012) Crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/ cellulose nanowhiskers composites. Carbohydrate Polymers, 90, 541-550.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.076

[16]   French, A.D. and Cintrón, M.S. (2013) Cellulose Polymorphy, Crystallite size, and the Segal Crystallinity Index. Cellulose, 20, 583-588.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10570-012-9833-y

[17]   Park, S., Baker, J.O., Himmel, M.E., Parilla, P.A. and Johnson, D.K. (2010) Cellulose Crystallinity Index: Measurement Techniques and Their Impact on Interpreting Cellulase Performance. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 3, 10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-3-10

[18]   Avolio, R., Bonadies, I., Capitani, D., Errico, M., Gentileand, G. and Avella, M. (2012) A Multitechnique Approach to Assess the Effect of Ball Milling on Cellulose. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87, 265-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.047

[19]   Zhao, H., Kwak, J.H., Wang, Y., Franz, J.A., White, J.M. and Holladay, J.E. (2006) Effects of Crystallinity on Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Cellulose Ball-Milling Study. Energy & Fuels, 20, 807-811.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef050319a

[20]   Islam, M.S., Pickering, K.L. and Foreman, N.J. (2010) Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Interfacial and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Industrial Hemp Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 596-603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.01.006

[21]   Lezak, E., Kulinski, Z., Masirek, R., Piorkowska, E., Pracella M. and Gadzinowska, K. (2008) Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Green Polylactide Composites with Natural Fillers. Macromolecular Bioscience, 8, 1190-1200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mabi.200800040

[22]   Halász, K. and Csóka, L. (2013) Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize. Journal of Engineering, 2012, Article ID: 329379.

[23]   Pucić, I. and Jurkin, T. (2012) FTIR Assessment of Poly(ethylene oxide) Irradiated in Solid State, Melt and Aqeuous Solution. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 81, 1426-1429.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2011.12.005

[24]   Abraham, E., Deepa, B., Pothen, L.A., Cintil, J., Thomas, S., John, M.J., Anandjiwala, R. and Narine, S.S. (2013) Environmental Friendly Method for the Extraction of Coir Fibre and Isolation of Nanofibre. Carbohydrate Polymers, 92, 1477-1483.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.10.056

[25]   Kumar, A., Negi, Y.S., Choudhary, V. and Bhardwaj, N.K. (2014) Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals Produced by Acid-Hydrolysis from Sugarcane Bagasse as Agro-Waste. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry, 2, 1-8.

[26]   Wang, N., Ding, E. and Cheng, R. (2007) Thermal Degradation Behaviors of Spherical Cellulose Nanocrystals with Sulfate Groups. Polymer, 48, 3486-3493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2007.03.062

[27]   Fu, S.-Y. Feng, X.-Q., Lauke, B. and Mai, Y.-W. (2008) Effects of Particle Size, Particle/Matrix Interface Adhesion and Particle Loading on Mechanical Properties of Particulate-Polymer. Composites Part B: Engineering, 39, 933-961.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2008.01.002

[28]   Radford, K. (1971) The Mechanical Properties of an Epoxy Resin with a Second Phase Dispersion. Journal of Materials Science, 6, 1286-1291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00552042

 
 
Top