JEP  Vol.6 No.8 , August 2015
Stabilisation of Pb in Pb Smelting Slag-Contaminated Soil by Compost-Modified Biochars and Their Effects on Maize Plant Growth
Abstract: Compost has been used to stabilise lead (Pb) in soil. However, compost contains a high level of dissolved organic matter (DOM) which may make Pb bioavailable in plant and thereby limiting its effectiveness and application. Addition of biochar to compost can reduce this effect. Rice husk (RH) and Cashew nut shell (CNS) biochars and compost-modified biochars were used in comparison to compost for stabilizing Pb in lead smelting slag (LSS)-contaminated soil (Pb = 18,300 mg/kg) in Nigeria. Efficiency of Pb stabilisation in control and amended soils was assessed using CaCl2 batch leaching experiment and plant performance. In pot experiments, maize plant was grown on the contaminated soil and on soil treated with minimum and optimum doses of the amendments singly and in combination for 6 weeks. Agronomical and chemical parameters of the plants were measured. CaCl2-extractable Pb in the untreated soil was reduced from 60 mg/kg to 0.55 mg/kg in RHB amended soils and non-detectable in other amended soils. RH-biochar/compost increased plant height, number of leaf and leaf area more than the others. Similarly, at minimum rate, it reduced root and shoot Pb by 91% and 86.0% respectively. Compost-modified rice husk biocharstabilised Pb in lead smelting slag contaminated soil reduced Pb plant uptake and improved plant growth. Lead stabilisation through the use of rice husk biochar with compost may be a green method for remediation of lead smelting slag-contaminated soil.
Cite this paper: Ogundiran, M. , Lawal, O. and Adejumo, S. (2015) Stabilisation of Pb in Pb Smelting Slag-Contaminated Soil by Compost-Modified Biochars and Their Effects on Maize Plant Growth. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 771-780. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.68070.

[1]   Zeng, L.-S., Liao, M., Chen, C.-L. and Huang, C.-Y. (2006) Effects of Lead Contamination on Soilmicrobial Activity and Rice Physiological Indices in Soil-Pb-Rice (Oryza sativa L.) System. Chemosphere, 65, 567-574.

[2]   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005) Toxicological Profile for Lead. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine/Applied Toxicology Branch 600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F 32, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.

[3]   de Andrade Lima, L.R.P. and Bernardez, L.A. (2011) Characterization of the Lead Smelter Slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189, 692-699.

[4]   Yang, Y., Li, S., Bi, X., Wu, Y., Liu, T., Li, F. and Liu, C. (2010) Lead, Zn, and Cd in Slags, Stream Sediments and Soils in an Abandoned Zn Smelting Region, Southwest of China, and Pb and S Isotopes as Source Tracers. Journal of Soils & Sediments, 10, 1527-1539.

[5]   Ogundiran, M.B. and Osibanjo, O. (2009) Mobility and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Soils Impacted by Hazardous Waste. Chemical Speciation &Bioavailability, 21, 59-69.

[6]   Swords, C. and Strange, J. (2006) Active Containment System for a Former Industrial Site in East London. Engineering Geology, 85, 204-211.

[7]   Ogundiran, M.B. and Osibanjo, O. (2009b) Effects of Phosphate Chemicals Treatments on Auto Battery Waste Contaminated Soil in Nigeria. Journal of Solid Waste Technology & Management, 35, 181-190.

[8]   Farrell, M. and Jones, D.L. (2010) Use of Composts in the Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil. Journal of Hazardous Material, 175, 575-582.

[9]   Adejumo, S.A., Togun, A.O., Adediran, J.A. and Ogundiran, M.B. (2011) Field Assessment of Progressive Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Lead-Acid Battery Waste in Response to Compost Application. Pedologist, 54, 182-193.

[10]   Fleming, M., Tai, Y., Zhuang, P. and McBride, M.M. (2013) Extractability and Bioavailability of Pb and As in Historically Contaminated Orchard Soil: Effects of Compost Amendments. Environmental Pollution, 177, 90-97.

[11]   Tang, J., Zhu, W., Kookana, R. and Katayama, A. (2013) Characteristics of Biochar and Its Application in Remediation of Contaminated Soil. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 116, 653-659.

[12]   Beesley, L., Moreno-Jimenez, E., Gomez-Eyles, J.L., Harris, E., Robinson, B. and Sizmur, T. (2011) A Review of Biochars’ Potential Role in the Remediation, Revegetation and Restoration of Contaminated Soils. Environmental Pollution, 159, 3269-3282.

[13]   Jiang, J., Xu, R.-K., Jiang, T.-Y. and Li, Z. (2012) Immobilization of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by the Addition of Rice Straw Derived Biochar to a Simulated Polluted Ultisol. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 229-230, 145-150.

[14]   Herath, I., Kumarathilaka, P., Navaratne, A., Rajakaruna, N. and Vithanage, M. (2015) Immobilization and Phytotoxicity Reduction of Heavy Metals in Serpentine Soil Using Biochar. Journal of Soils & Sediments, 15, 126-138.

[15]   Carrier, M., Hardie, A.G., Uras, U., Gorgens, J. and Knoetze J. (2012) Production of Char from Vacuum Pyrolysis of South-African Sugar Cane Bagasse and Its Characterization as Activated Carbon and Biochar. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 96, 24-32.

[16]   Günther, F. (2007) Simple Biochar Production Method: A Two-Barrel Charcoal.

[17]   Walkley, A. and Black, A.I. (1934) An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromium Acid Titration Method. Soil Science, 37, 29-38.

[18]   Ogundiran, M.B. and Osibanjo, O. (2008) Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Accumulation in Plants Growing in a Deserted Slag Dumpsite in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 3053-3060.

[19]   Pleysier, J.L. and Juo, A.S.R. (1980) A Single Extraction Method Using Silver Thiourea for Measuring Exchangeable Cations and Effective CEC in Soils with Variable Charges. Soil Science, 129, 205-211.

[20]   Shuman, L.M. (1990) Comparison of Exchangeable Al, Extractable Al in Soil Fractions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 70, 263-275.

[21]   ISO 11261 (2005) Determination of Kjeldahl Nitrogen in Soil, Biowaste and Sewage Sludge.

[22]   Mehlich, A. (1984) Mehlich 3 Soil Test Extractant: A Modification of Mehlich 2 Extractant. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, 15, 1409-1416.

[23]   Trevisan, M.T.S., Pfundstein, B., Haubner, R., Wurtele, G., Spiegelhalder, B., Bartsch, H. and Owen, R.W. (2006) Characterization of Alkyl Phenols in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Products and Assay of Their Antioxidant Capacity. Food Chemistry & Toxicology, 44, 188-197.

[24]   Salati, S., Quadri, G., Tambone, F. and Adani, F. (2010) Fresh Organic Matter of Municipal Solid Waste Enhances Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soil. Environmental Pollution, 158, 1899-1906.

[25]   Gonzalez-Nunez, R., Alba, M.D., Orta, M.M., Vidal, M. and Rigol, A. (2012) Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils with the Addition of Materials—Part II: Leaching Tests to Evaluate the Efficiency of Materials in the Remediation of Contaminated Soils. Chemosphere, 87, 829-837.

[26]   Boruvka, L. and Drabek, O. (2004) Heavy Metal Distribution between Fractions of Humic Substances in Heavily Polluted Soils. Plant Soil & Environment, 50, 339-345.

[27]   Wu, W., Yang, M., Feng, O., McGrouther, K., Wang, H., Lu, H. and Chen, Y. (2012) Chemical Characterization of Rice Straw-Derived Biochar for Soil Amendment. Biomass and Bioenergy, 47, 268-276.

[28]   Xu, X., Cao, X. and Zhao, L. (2013) Comparison of Rice Husk- and Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars for Simultaneously Removing Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions: Role of Mineral Components in Biochars. Chemosphere, 92, 955-961.

[29]   Zmora-Nahum, S., Hadar, Y. and Chen, Y. (2007) Physico-Chemical Properties of Commercial Composts Varying in Their Source Materials and Country of Origin. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 1263-1276.

[30]   Ma, Q.Y., Traina, S.J. and Logan, T.J. (1995) Lead Immobilization from Aqueous Solutions and Contaminated Soils Using Phosphate Rocks. Environmental Science & Technology, 29, 1118-1126.

[31]   Rukzon, S., Chindaprasirt, P. and Mahachai, R. (2009) Effect of Grinding on Chemical and Physical Properties of Rice Husk Ash. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy & Materials, 16, 242-247.

[32]   Bade, R., Oh, S. and Shin, W.S. (2012) Assessment of Metal Bioavailability in Smelter-Contaminated Soil before and after Lime Amendment. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 80, 299-307.