OJG  Vol.5 No.7 , July 2015
The Unique Folding Style in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, the Kuh-e Qazi Anticline, South Iran
Author(s) Zahra Maleki
ABSTRACT
The study area is located in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt of Iran and in the interior Fars sub-basin (175 km from Persian Gulf). The Zagros fold-thrust belt is home to one of the largest petroleum producing reservoirs in the world. Structures in this area have complications and the study anticline has unique structures in the Fars region. In the study area, the Kuh-e Qazi anticline due to special fold and rotation toward Northeast is the unique structure between anticlines of the Zagros belt. This anticline is fault bend fold and plunge of the anticline in eastern part rotated toward Northeast along with the Nezamabad fault trend. In this area, the Kuh-e Qazi anticline has asymmetric structures and some faults such as the Nezamabad and the Sarvestan strike slip fault effect on this anticline. The geometry of anticlines in the Zagros fold-thrust belt is affected by the type of deformation and mechanical behavior of stratigraphic units specially detachment units. The purpose of this research is to determine of folding pattern of the Kuh-e Qazi anticline and define structural features affected on them in the study area. This paper presents a part of the results of a regional study of the Fars province in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, based on original fieldwork, satellite images, structural sections, geological maps and well data. Also, we use some software as Global Mapper and Tectonics FP for preparing some data. Based on the research, which have been done, the boundary between ductile and frictional substrates causes rotation as a result of lateral, along-strike migration of the ductile substrate. The ductile or viscose layer in the study area is Hormuz Series. Due to lack or thinning of Hormuz salt over the Gavbandi basement high and in the eastern side of the Nezamabad basement fault, causes translation of strain and anticlockwise rotation in Southeast of the Kuh-e Qazi anticline toward Northwest unlike foreland basin due to the Nezamabad fault activity. This between all of the anticlines in the study area is unique that rotates unlike foreland basin. In addition, influence on anticlockwise rotation, extensional stress has been created and then salt dome cropping out in Southeast of the Kuh-Qazi anticline. One of the best evidence for effect of extensional stress is triangular facets in this part of the study anticline. Based on folding analysis (geometry of axial plane and fold orientation), it is clearly confirmed that the translation of strain and anticlockwise rotation in Southeast of the Kuh-e Qazi anticline toward Northwest has been formed by basement fault activity as the Nezamabad fault in the boundary between ductile and frictional substrates of the study area.

Cite this paper
Maleki, Z. (2015) The Unique Folding Style in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, the Kuh-e Qazi Anticline, South Iran. Open Journal of Geology, 5, 514-526. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2015.57047.
References
[1]   Beydoun, Z.R., Hughes Clark, M.W. and Stoneley, R. (1992) Petroleum in the Zagros Basin; a Late Tertiary Foreland Basin Overprinted onto the Outer Edge of a Vast Hydrocarbon-Rich Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Passive Margin Shelf. Vol. 55, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir, 309-339.

[2]   Motiei, H. (1993) Stratigraphy of Zagros. Treatise on the Geology of Iran. Ministry of Mines and Metals, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran.

[3]   Molnar, M. (2006) Tertiary Development of the Zagros Mountains. Geol 418—Earth History.

[4]   Furst, M. (1976) Tektonik und Diapirismus der ostlichen Zagrosketten. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 127, 183-225.

[5]   Arian, M. (2013) Physiographic-Tectonic Zoning of Iran’s Sedimentary Basins. Open Journal of Geology, 3, 169-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojg.2013.33020

[6]   Blance, E.J.-P. (2003) Structural Styles in the Zagros Simple Folded Zone, Iran. Journal of the Geological Society, 160, 401-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/0016-764902-110

[7]   Burberry, C.M., Cosgrove, J.W. and Liu, J.-G. (2008) Spatial Arrangement of Fold Types in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, Iran. Indicated by Landform Morphology and Drainage Pattern Characteristics. Journal of Maps, 4, 417-430. http://dx.doi.org/10.4113/jom.2008.97

[8]   Alavi, M. (2004) Regional Stratigraphy of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt of Iran and Its Proforeland Evolution. American Journal of Science, 304, 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.304.1.1

[9]   Bahroudi, A. and Koyi, H. (2003) Effect of Ductile and Frictional Décollements on Style of Extension. Journal of Structural Geology, 25, 1401-1423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(02)00201-8

[10]   Falcon, N. (1974) Southern Iran: Zagros Mountains. In: Spencer, A., Ed., Mesozoic-Cenozoic Orogenic Belts, Vol. 4, Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 199-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsl.sp.2005.004.01.11

[11]   Letouzey, J. and Sherkati, S. (2004) Salt Movement, Tectonic Events, and Structural Style in the Central Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt (Iran). 24th Annual Gulf Coast Section SEPM Foundation, Interactions and Bob F. Perkins Research Conference on Salt Sediments Hydrocarbon Prospectivity, Houston, 5-8 December 2004, 535-554.

[12]   Sherkati, S. and Letouzey, J. (2004) Variation of Structural Style and Basin Evolution in the Central Zagros (Izeh Zone and Dezful Embayment), Iran. Marine Petroleum Geology, 21, 535-554.

[13]   Sherkati. S., Molinaro, M., de Lamotte, D.F. and Lettouzey, J. (2005) Detachment Folding in the Central Eastern Zagros Fold-Belt (Iran): Salt Mobility, Multiple Detachments and Late Basement Control. Journal of Structural Geology, 27, 1680-1696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2005.05.010

[14]   Alavi, M. (2007) Structures of the Zagros fold-Thrust Belt in Iran. American Journal of Science, 307, 1064-1095. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/09.2007.02

[15]   Barzegar, F. (1994) Basement Fault Mapping of Zagros Folded Belt (S. W. Iran) Based on Space-Born Remotely Sensed Data. Proceeding of the 10th Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing: Exploration, Environment and Engineering, San Antonio, 9-12 May 1994, 455-466.

[16]   McQuillan, H. (1991) The Role of Basement Tectonics in the Control of Sedimentary Facies, Structural Patterns and Salt Plug Emplacements in the Zagros Fold Belt of Southwest Iran. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 5, 453-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0743-9547(91)90061-2

[17]   Talbot, C.J. and Alavi, M. (1996) The Past of a Future Syntaxis across the Zagros. In: Alsop, G.I., Blundell, D.J. and Davison, I., Eds., Salt Tectonics, Vol. 100, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, 89-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsl.sp.1996.100.01.08

[18]   Setchell, C.M., Cosgrove, J.W. and Liu, J.-G. (2007) The Distribution of Fold Types in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt, Iran. Imperial College, London. (Map Scale 1:100,000)

[19]   O’Brien, C.A.E. (1950) Tectonic Problems of the Oil Field Belt of Southwest Iran. Proceedings of 18th International of Geological Congress, Part 6, Great Britain, 45-58.

[20]   Jamison, W.R. (1987) Geometric Analysis of Fold Development in Over-Thrust Terrenes. Journal of Structural Geology, 9, 207-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(87)90026-5

[21]   Mitra, S. (2002) Fold-Accommodation Faults. AAPG. Bulletin, 86, 671-693.

[22]   Mitra, S. (2003) A Unified Kinematic Model for the Evolution of Detachment Folds. Journal of Structural Geology, 25, 1659-1673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(02)00198-0

[23]   Suppe, J. (1985) Geometry and Kinematics of Fault-Bend Folding. American Journal of Science, 283, 684-721. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.283.7.684

[24]   Hessami, K. (2001) The Significance of Strike-Slip Faulting in the Basement of the Zagros Sold and Thrust Belt. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 24, 5-28.

[25]   Shamshiri, M. (2001) The Exploration Project of Fars Region. National Iranian Oil Company, Geological Report.

[26]   McQuarrie, N. (2004) Crustal Scale Geometry of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran. Journal of Structural Geology, 26, 519-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2003.08.009

[27]   Colman-Sadd, S.P. (1978) Fold Development in Zagros Simply Folded Belt, Southwest Iran. AAPG. Bulletin, 62, 984-1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/c1ea4f81-16c9-11d7-8645000102c1865d

[28]   Ala, M.A. (1974) Salt Diapirism in Southern Iran. AAPG Bulletin, 58, 1758-1770.

[29]   Kent, P.E. (1970) The Salt of the Persian Gulf Region. Transactions of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, 64, 56-88.

[30]   Player, R.A. (1969) The Hormuz Salt Plugs of Southern Iran. MS, PhD Thesis, Reading University, Reading, 300.

[31]   Ghanavati, D. (2009) Geometry of Folding Style Analysis in the Coastal Fars and Effects of the Nezamabad Fault in the Structures Region. Ph.D Thesis of Structural Geology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Tehran, 200.

[32]   Setudehnia, A. and Perry, .J.T. (1965) Geological Map of SE & SE Fars, Scale 1:250,000. National Iranian Oil Company.

[33]   Barzegar, F. (1992) Introducing Firuzabad and the Nezamabad Faults. Proceedings of 10th Geosciences Conference, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 15-16 February 1992.

[34]   Furst, M. (1990) Strike-Slip Faults and Diapirism of the South-Eastern Zagros Ranges. Proceeding of Symposium on Diapirism, 2, 149-182.

[35]   Nogole-Sadat, M.A.A. and Almasian, M. (1993) Tectonic Map of Iran, Scale 1:1,000,000. Geological Survey of Iran.

[36]   Yassaghi, A. (2006) Integration of Landsat Imagery Interpretation and Geomagnetic Data on Verification of Deep-Seated transverse Fault Lineaments in SE Zagros. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160600661283

[37]   Twiss, R.J. and Moores, E.M. (1992) Structural Geology. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 532.

[38]   (2001) Geological Map of Fassa, Iran, Scale: 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran.

[39]   Ragan, D.M. (1985) Structural Geology, an Introduction to Geometrical Techniques. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, 210-215.

[40]   Alavi, M. (1994) Tectonics of the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran: New Data and Interpretations. Tectonophysics, 229, 211-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(94)90030-2

[41]   Letouzey, J. (2005) Detachment Folding in the Central Eastern Zagros fold-Belt (Iran): Salt Mobility, Multiple Detachments and Late Basement Control. Journal of Structural Geology, 27, 1680-1696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2005.05.010

[42]   Ramsay, J.G. (1967) Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. McGraw-Hill, New York, 568.

[43]   Rickard, M.J.A. (1971) Classification Diagram for Fold Orientation. Geological Magazine, 108, 23-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800050925

[44]   Maleki, Z., Arian, M., Solgi, A. and Ganjavian, MA. (2014) The Elements of Fold Style Analysis in the Khaftar Anticline, Zagros, Iran. Open Journal of Geology, 4, 79-92.

[45]   Maleki, Z., Arian, M., Solgi, A. and Ganjavian, MA. (2013) Sediment Deformations on Strike Slip Fault Blocks and Analogue Modeling: A Case Study of the Nezamabad Fault, Interior Fars, Zagros. Journal of Sciences (Islamic Azad University), 89, 39-51. (In Persian)

[46]   Maleki, Z., Arian, M., Solgi, A. and Ganjavian, MA. (2015) Analysis Elements of Fold Style in the Karbasi Anticline, Interior Fars Region, Zagros. Geosciences, 24, 293-302.

 
 
Top