OJPsych  Vol.1 No.2 , July 2011
Spousal concordance in academic achievements and IQ: A principal component analysis
ABSTRACT
Assortative mating, the tendency for mate selection to occur on the basis of similar traits plays an essential role in understanding the genetic variation on academic achievements and intelligence (IQ), it is also an important mechanism explaining spousal concordance. We used a subset of The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism sample to study the mating patterns in 84 pairs of spouses from Caucasian families with their academic achievements (reading, spelling, arithmetic, vocabulary and comprehension) and IQ (verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ). Simple correlation analysis showed that 6 of these 8 traits revealed evidence of spousal correlation (P < 0.05). The first principal component (PC1) of husbands explains 73.61% for the variation in the eight variables, which has high loadings from reading, spelling, arithmetic, verbal IQ and full scale IQ while PC1 of wives explains 72.86% for the variation in the eight variables, which has high loadings from reading, spelling, verbal IQ and full scale IQ. There was highly significant positive correlation between spouses by PC1 (P < 0.0001). The new variable PC1 may be important in spousal concordance and mate selection in society and act upon achievements and intelligence levels.

Cite this paper
nullPan, Y. and Wang, K. (2011) Spousal concordance in academic achievements and IQ: A principal component analysis. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 15-19. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.12003.
References
[1]   Lott, D.F. (1979) A possible for generally adaptive features in the mate selection and sexual stimulation. Psychological Report, 45, 539-546.

[2]   Merikangas, K.R. (1982) Assortative mating for psychiatric disorders and psychological traits. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1173-1180.

[3]   Low, N., Cui, L. and Merikangas, K.R. (2007) Spousal concordance for substance use and anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 942-951. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.11.003

[4]   Wolański, N. (1974) The stature of offspring and the assortative mating of parents. Human Biology, 46, 613-619.

[5]   Ginsburg, E., Livshits, G., Yakovenko, K. and Kobyliansky, E. (1998) Major gene control of human body height, weight and BMI in five ethnically different populations. Annals of Human Genetics, 62, 307-322. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.1998.6240307.x

[6]   Pawlowski, B. (2003) Variable preferences for sexual dimorphism in height as a strategy for increasing the pool of potential partners in humans. Proceedings Biological Sciences, 270, 709-712. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2294

[7]   Farley, F.H. and Davi, S.A. (1977) Arousal personality and assortative mating in marriage. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 3, 122-127.

[8]   Farley, F.H. and Mueller, C.B. (1978) Arousal, personality and assortative mating in marriage: Generalizability and cross-cultural factors. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 4, 50-53.

[9]   Heun, R. and Maier, W. (1993) Morbid risks for major disorders and frequencies of personality disorders among spouses of psychiatric inpatients and controls. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34, 137-143. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(93)90059-D

[10]   Feng, D. and Baker, L. (1994) Spouse similarity in attitudes, personality, and psychological well-being. Behavior Genetics, 24, 357-364. doi:10.1007/BF01067537

[11]   Dubuis-Stadelmann, E., Fenton, B.T., Ferrero, F. and Preisig, M. (2001) Spouse similarity for temperament, personality and psychiatric symptomatology. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1095-1112. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00092-1

[12]   Luo, S.H. and Klohnen, E.C. (2005) Assortative mating and marital quality in newlyweds: A couple-centered approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 304-326. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.2.304

[13]   Hur, Y.M. (2003) Assortative mating for personality traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in parents of a Korean twin sample. Twin Research, 6, 467-470. doi:10.1375/136905203322686446

[14]   Watson, D., Klohnen, E.C., Casillas, A., Simms, E.N., Haig, J. and Berry, D.S. (2004) Match makers and deal breakers: Analyses of assortative mating in newlywed couples. Journal of Personality, 72, 1029-1068. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00289.x

[15]   Sutton, G.C. (1980) Assortative marriage for smoking-habits. Annals of Human Biology, 7, 449-456. doi:10.1080/03014468000004561

[16]   Wilson, S.E. (2002) The health capital of families: An investigation of the interspousal correlation in health status. Social Science and Medicine, 55, 1157-1172. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00253-2

[17]   Bloch, K.V., Klein, C.H., de Souza e Silva, N.A., Nogueira Ada, R. and Salis, L.H. (2003) Socioeconomic aspects of spousal concordance for hypertension, obesity, and smoking in a community of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 80, 179-186. doi:10.1590/S0066-782X2003000200006

[18]   Merikangas, K.R. and Brunetto, W. (1996) Assortative mating and psychiatric disorders. Balliere’s Clinical Psychiatry International Practice and Research, 2, 175-185.

[19]   Maes, H.H., Neale, M.C., Kendler, K.S., Hewitt, J.K., Silberg, J.L., Foley, D.L., Meyer, J.M., Rutter, M., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A. and Eaves, L.J. (1998) Assortative mating for major psychiatric diagnoses in two population-based samples. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1389-1401. doi:10.1017/S0033291798007326

[20]   Mathews, C.A. and Reus, V.I. (2001) Assortative mating in the affective disorders: A systematic review and meta- analysis. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 257-262. doi:10.1053/comp.2001.24575

[21]   Smith, C.A. and Farrington, D.P. (2004) Continuities in antisocial behavior and parenting across three generations. Journal of Child Psychology, 45, 230-247. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00216.x

[22]   Grant, J.D., Heath, A.C., Bucholz, K.K., Madden, P.A., Agrawal, A., Statham, D.J. and Martin, N.G. (2007) Spousal concordance for alcohol dependence: Evidence for assortative mating or spousal interaction effects. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 717-728. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00356.x

[23]   Mascie-Taylor, C.G. and Boldsen, J.L. (1984) Assortative mating for IQ: A multivariate approach. Journal of Biosocial Science, 16, 109-117. doi:10.1017/S002193200001484X

[24]   Mascie-Taylor, C.G. and Vandenberg, S.G. (1988) Assortative mating for IQ and personality due to propinquity and personal preference. Behavior Genetics, 18, 339-345. doi:10.1007/BF01260934

[25]   Mascie-Taylor, C.G. (1989) Spouse similarity for IQ and personality and convergence. Behavior Genetics, 19, 223-227. doi:10.1007/BF01065906

[26]   Wolff, P.H. and Meingailis, I. (1994) Family patterns of developmental dyslexia clinical findings. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 54, 122-131. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320540207

[27]   Halpin, B. and Chan, T.W. (2003) Educational homogamy in Ireland and Britain: Trends and patterns. British Journal of Sociology, 54, 473-495. doi:10.1080/0007131032000143546

[28]   Nolan, M.A., Redoblado, M.A., Lah, S., Sabaz, M., Lawson, J.A., Cunningham, A.M., Bleasel, A.F. and Bye, A.M. (2003) Intelligence in childhood epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsy Research, 53, 139-150. doi:10.1016/S0920-1211(02)00261-9

[29]   Wainwright, M.A., Wright, M.J., Geffen, G., Luciano, M. and Martin, N.G. (2005) The genetic basis of academic achievement on the Queensland core skills test and its shared genetic variance with IQ. Behavior Genetics, 35, 133-145. doi:10.1007/s10519-004-1014-9

[30]   Reich, T. (1996) A genomic survey of alcohol dependence and related phenotypes: Results from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 20, 133A- 137A. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01763.x

[31]   Wechsler, D. (1997) WAIS –III Wechsler adult intelligence scale. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio.

[32]   Wechsler, D. (1981) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised. The Psychological Corporation, New York.

[33]   Bouchard, T.J. and McGue, M.J. (1981) Familial studies of intelligence: A review. Science, 1055-1059. doi:10.1126/science.7195071

[34]   Dick, D.M., Aliev, F., Bierut, L., Goate, A., Rice, J., Hinrichs, A., Bertelsen, S., Wang, J.C., Dunn, G., Kuperman, S., Schuckit, M., Nurnberger, J. Jr., Porjesz, B., Beglieter, H., Kramer, J. and Hesselbrock, V. (2006) Linkage analyses of IQ in the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA) sample. Behavior Genetics, 36, 77-86. doi:10.1007/s10519-005-9009-8

[35]   Dick, D.M., Aliev, F., Kramer, J., Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A., Bertelsen, S., Kuperman, S., Schuckit, M., Nurnberger, J. Jr., Edenberg, H.J., Porjesz, B., Begleiter, H., Hesselbrock, V., Goate, A. and Bierut, L. (2007) Association of CHRM2 with IQ: Converging evidence for a Gene Influencing Intelligence. Behavior Genetics, 37, 265-272. doi:10.1007/s10519-006-9131-2

[36]   Berninger, V.W., Nielsen, K.H. and Abbott, R.D., Wijsman, E. and Raskind, W. (2008) Gender Difference in severity of writing and reading disabilities. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 151-172. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2007.02.007

[37]   Smith, L.I. (2002) A tutorial on principal components analysis. http://www.cs.otago.ac.nz/cosc453/student_tutorials/principal_components.pdf

 
 
Top