Graphene  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2015
Free-Green Synthesis and Dynamics of Reduced Graphene Sheets via Sun Light Irradiation
ABSTRACT
It is universally known that the preparation of high quality graphene on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner is essential for many technological applications. Graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as the precursor of choice for bulk production of graphene-based materials, as it can be synthesized from inexpensive graphite powders. In this paper, a simple method is described for reduction of GO solution by a free and green irradiation based technique. The majority of oxygen-containing functional groups of GO are removed by sun light. This methodology provides an effective way to quantitatively produce high quality graphene sheets. This paper presents irradiation by sun light of synthesized graphene oxide nano-flakes prepared by Hummer’s method. These nano-flakes have been successfully reduced while the dynamic of this irradiation process is discussed. The irradiated nano-flakes of graphene oxide have been investigated using X-Ray diffraction, ATR-FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR.

Cite this paper
Nyangiwe, N. , Khenfouch, M. , Thema, F. , Nukwa, K. , Kotsedi, L. , Maaza, M. (2015) Free-Green Synthesis and Dynamics of Reduced Graphene Sheets via Sun Light Irradiation. Graphene, 4, 54-61. doi: 10.4236/graphene.2015.43006.
References
[1]   Owen, C., Bonny, J., Dmitriy, A., Dikin, A., Khalil, A., Son, B. and Nguyen, T. (2011) Chemically Active Reduced Graphene Oxide with Tunable C/O Ratios. ACS Nano, 5, 4380-4391.

[2]   Lee, C.G., Wei, X.D., Kysar, J.W. and Hone, J. (2008) Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene. Science, 321, 385-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1157996

[3]   Balandin, A.A., Ghosh, S., Bao, W.Z., Calizo, I., Teweldebrhan, D., Miao, F. and Lau, C.N. (2008) Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene. Nano Letters, 8, 902-907.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl0731872

[4]   Orlita, M., Faugeras, C., Plochocka, P., Neugebauer, P., Martinez, G., Maude, D.K., Barra, A.L., Sprinkle, M., Berger, C., de Heer, W.A., et al. (2008) Approaching the Dirac Point in High-Mobility Multilayer Epitaxial Graphene. Physical Review Letters, 101, Article ID: 267601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.267601

[5]   Chen, H.Q., Müller, M.B., Gilmore, K.J., Wallace, G.G. and Li., D. (2008) Mechanically Strong, Electrically Conductive, and Biocompatible Graphene Paper. Advanced Materials, 20, 3557-3561.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.200800757

[6]   Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H.B., Kohlhaas, K.M., Zimney, E.J., Stach, E.A., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T. and Ruoff, R.S. (2006) Graphene-Based Composite Materials. Nature, 442, 282-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04969

[7]   Fowler, J.D., Allen, M.J., Tung, V.C., Yang, Y., Kaner, R.B. and Weiller, B.H. (2009) Practical Chemical Sensors from Chemically Derived Graphene. ACS Nano, 3, 301-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn800593m

[8]   Wang, C.Y., Li, D., Too, C.O. and Wallace, G.G. (2009) Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Paper Electrodes Used in Lithium Batteries. Chemistry of Materials, 21, 2604-2606.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm900764n

[9]   Abouimrane, A., Compton, O.C., Amine, K. and Nguyen, S.T. (2010) Non-Annealed Graphene Paper as a Binder-Free Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114, 12800-12804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp103704y

[10]   Park, S., An, J.H., Jung, I.W., Piner, R.D., An, S.J., Li., X.S., Velamakanni, A. and Ruoff, R.S. (2009) Colloidal Suspensions of Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide in a Wide Variety of Organic Solvents. Nano Letters, 9, 1593-1597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl803798y

[11]   Park, S. and Ruoff, R.S. (2009) Chemical Methods for the Production of Graphenes. Nature Nanotechnology, 4, 217- 224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2009.58

[12]   Lerf, A., He, H., Forster, M. and Klinowski, J. (1998) Structure of Graphite Oxide Revisited. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 102, 4477-4482.

[13]   Cai, W., Piner, R.D., Stadermann, F.J., Park, S., Shaibat, M.A., Ishii, Y., Yang, D.X., Velamakanni, A., An, S.J. and Stoller, M. (2008) Synthesis and Solid-State NMR Structural Characterization of 13C-Labeled Graphite Oxide. Science, 321, 1815-1817.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1162369

[14]   Szabo, T., Berkesi, O., Forgo, P., Josepovits, K., Sanakis, Y., Petridis, D. and Dekany, I. (2006) Evolution of Surface Functional Groups in a Series of Progressively Oxidized Graphite Oxides. Chemistry of Materials, 18, 2740-2749.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm060258+

[15]   Compton, O.C. and Nguyen, S.T. (2010) Graphene Oxide, Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Graphene: Versatile Building Blocks for Carbon-Based Materials. Small, 6, 711-723.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.200901934

[16]   Stankovich, S., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T. and Ruoff, R.S. (2006) Synthesis and Exfoliation of Isocyanate Treated Graphene Oxide Nanoplatelets. Carbon, 44, 3342-3347.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.06.004

[17]   Niyogi, S., Bekyarova, E., Itkis, M.E., McWilliams, J.L., Hamon, M.A. and Haddon, R.C. (2006) Solution Properties of Graphite and Graphene. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128, 7720-7721.

[18]   Brodie, B.C. (1960) Sur le poids atomique du graphite. Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 59, 466-472.

[19]   Hummers, W. and Offeman R. (1958) Preparation of Graphitic Oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80, 1339.

[20]   Staudenmaier, L. (1898) Verfahren zur Darstellung der Graphitsäure. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 31, 1481-1499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.18980310237

[21]   He, H., Riedl, T., Lerf, A. and Klinowski, J. (1996) Solid-State NMR Studies of the Structure of Graphite Oxide. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 100, 19954-19958.

[22]   He, H., Klinowski, J., Forster, M. and Lerf, A. (1998) A New Structural Model for Graphite Oxide. Chemical Physics Letters, 287, 53-56.

[23]   Lerf, A., He, H., Riedl, T., Forster, M. and Klinowski, J. (1997) 13C and 1H MAS NMR Studies of Graphite Oxide and Its Chemically Modified Derivatives. Solid State Ionics, 101-103, 857-862.

[24]   Szabo, T., Berkesi, O. and Dekany, I. (2005) DRIFT Study of Deuterium-Exchanged Graphite Oxide. Carbon, 43, 3186-3189.

[25]   Hontoria, L., Lopez, P., Lopez, G., Rojas, C. and Martin, A. (1995) Study of Oxygen-Containing Groups in a Series of Graphite Oxides: Physical and Chemical Characterization. Carbon, 33, 1585-1592.

[26]   Boehm, H.P., Clauss, A., Fischer, G.O. and Hofmann, U. (1962) The Adsorption Behavior of Very Thin Carbon Films. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, 316, 119-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zaac.19623160303

[27]   Bourlinos, A.B., Gournis, D., Petridis, D., Szabo, T., Szeri, A. and Dekany, I. (2003) Graphite Oxide: Chemical Reduction to Graphite and Surface Modification with Primary Aliphatic Amines and Amino Acids. Langmuir, 19, 6050- 6055.

[28]   Boehm, H.P., Clauss, A., Fischer, G.O. and Hofmann, U. (1962) Thin Carbon Leaves. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 17b, 150-153.

[29]   Stankovich, S., Piner, R.D., Chen, X., Wu, N., Nguyen, S.T. and Ruoff, R.S. (2006) Stable Aqueous Dispersions of Graphitic Nanoplatelets via the Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide in the Presence of Poly(sodium 4-styrenesul- fonate). Journal of Materials Chemistry, 16, 155-158.

[30]   Liu, Z.B., Li, L., Xu, Y.F., Liang, J.J., Zhao, X., Chen, S.Q., Chen, Y.S. and Tian, J.G. (2011) Direct Patterning on Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses. Journal of Optics, 13, Article ID: 085601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2040-8978/13/8/085601

[31]   Sokolov, D.E., Shepperd, K.R. and Orlando, T.M. (2010) Formation of Graphene Features from Direct Laser-Induced Reduction of Graphite Oxide. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 1, 2633-2636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz100790y

[32]   Zhang, Y., Guo, L., Wei, S., Hei, Y. and Sun, H. (2010) Direct Imprinting of Microcircuits on Graphene Oxides Film by Femtosecond Laser Reduction. Nano Today, 5, 15-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2009.12.009

[33]   Trusovas, R., Raciukaitis, G., Barkauskas, J. and Mazeikiene, R. (2012) Laser Induced Graphite Oxide/Graphene Transformation. Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 7, 49-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2961/jlmn.2012.01.0009

[34]   Kumar, P., Subrahmanyam, K.S. and Rao, C.N.R. (2011) Graphene Produced by Radiation-Induced Reduction of Graphene Oxide. International Journal of Nanoscience, 10, 559-566.

[35]   Ji, T., Hua, Y., Sun, M. and Ma, N. (2013) The Mechanism of the Reaction of Graphite Oxide to Reduced Graphene Oxide under Ultraviolet Irradiation. Carbon, 54, 412-418.

[36]   Gauduel, Y., Migus, A., Chambaret, J.P. and Antonetti, A. (1987) Femtosecond Reactivity of Electron in Aqueous Solutions. Revue de Physique Appliquée, 22, 1755-1759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/rphysap:0198700220120175500

 
 
Top