Health  Vol.7 No.7 , July 2015
Examining the Relationship of Optimism and Emotion Regulation Strategies with General Health among Students of University of Sistan and Baluchestan
Abstract: Background and Objective: Individuals apply various emotion regulation strategies, some of which are adaptive and others are maladaptive affecting people’s general health. Moreover, individual life-orientation including favorable expectancies about future (optimism) is associated with health-related behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of optimism and emotion regulation strategies with general health of university students. Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. In this regard, 182 students of University of Sistan and Baluchestan (70 males and 112 females) were chosen. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all undergraduate students of the university of Sistan and Baluchestan in the second semester of the 2009-2010 academic year. Considering the nature of the current study, the correlational method was applied. Based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table, a sample of 200 subjects was selected from students majored at different fields including human sciences, basic sciences and technical-engineering through applying multi-stage random sampling method. Eighteen incomplete questionnaire forms were excluded. Finally, data obtained from 182 subjects (112 females, 70 males) were analyzed. The mean age was 21.1 year-old and standard deviation of the sample was 2.06. Samplings were assessed using the Revised Life-Orientation Test (LOT-R), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and General Health-28 Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: Findings showed that there was a significant positive relationship between optimism and general health (r = 0.22, p < 0.01). Among all research variables, i.e. optimism and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), only optimism was able to predict 0.06 percent of variance of general health (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Optimists have higher general health and consistent with other findings, optimism is associated with higher levels of applying coping strategies and lower levels of avoidance.
Cite this paper: Jenaabadi, H. , Ahani, M. and Sabaghi, F. (2015) Examining the Relationship of Optimism and Emotion Regulation Strategies with General Health among Students of University of Sistan and Baluchestan. Health, 7, 865-872. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.77102.

[1]   O’Connor, C.R. and Cassidy, C. (2007) Predicting Hopelessness: The Interaction between Optimism/Pessimism and Specific Future Expectancies. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 596-613.

[2]   Kivimaki, M., Elovainio, M., Singh-Manoux, A., et al. (2005) Optimism and Pessimism as Predictors of Change in Health after Death or Onset of Severe Illness in Family. Health Psychology, 24, 413-421.

[3]   Chang, C.E., Sanna, Y.L. and Yang, M. (2003) Optimism, Pessimism, Affectivity, and Psychological Adjustment in USA and Korea: A Test of a Mediation Model. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1195-1208.

[4]   Srivastava, S., Richards, M., McGonigal, M.K., et al. (2006) Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things in a Positive Light Makes Them So. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 143-153.

[5]   Segerstrom, E.S., Taylor, E.S., Kemeny, E.M. and Fahey, L.Y. (1998) Optimism Is Associated with Mood, Coping, and Immune Change in Response to Stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1646-1655.

[6]   Fitzgerald, T.E., Tennen, H. and Affleck, G. (1993) The Relative Importance of Dispositional Optimism and Control Appraisals in Quality of Life after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 25-43.

[7]   Ebreeht, M., Hextall, J. and Kirtley, L.G. (2004) Perceived Stress and Cortisol Predict Speed of Wound Healthy Male Adults. Psych Neuroendocrinology, 29, 798-809.

[8]   Vollrath, M.E. (2006) Handbook of Personality and Health. John Wiley and Sons, LTD, Hoboken.

[9]   Segerston, C.S. (2007) Optimism and Resources: Effect on Each Other and on Health over 10 Years. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 772-786.

[10]   Conway, F.M., Magai, C., Springer, C., et al. (2008) Opti-mism and Pessimism as Predictors of Physical and Psychological Health among Grandmothers Raising Their Grandchildren. Journal of Research in Persinality, 42, 1352-1357.

[11]   Biriya, N.S. and Najibullah, N. (2009) An Investigation of the Relationship between Innate Optimism and Optimism from Islamic Viewpoint and Satisfaction with Life. Psychology and Religion, 2, 29-68. (In Persian)

[12]   Scheier, M.F., Carver, C.S. and Bridges, M.W. (1994) Distinguishing Optimism from Neuroticimcand Trait Anxiety, Self-Mastery, and Self-Esteem: A Re-Evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.

[13]   Thompson, A. and Gaudreau, P. (2008) From Optimism and Pessimism to Coping: The Mediating Role of Academic Motivation. International Journal of Stress Management, 15, 269-288.

[14]   Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, I.K., et al. (2000) Dispositional Emotionality and Regulation: Their Role in Predicting Quality of Social Functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 136-157.

[15]   Gross, J.J. (1999) Emotion Regulation: Past, Present, Future. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 551-573.

[16]   Hassani, J., Azadfallah, P., Tabatabaie, S.K., et al. (2008) The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies According to Neuroticism and Extraversion Personality Dimensions. Advances in Cognitive Science, 10, 1-13. (In Persian)

[17]   Gross, J.J. (1998) Ante-cedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation: Divergent Consequences for Experience, Expression, and Physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224-237.

[18]   Gross, J.J. and John, P.O. (2003) Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implication for Affect, Relationships and Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348-362.

[19]   Gross, J.J. (1998) The Emerging Field of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299.

[20]   Mauss, B.I., Cook, L.C., Cheng, Y.J., et al. (2007) Individual Dif-ferences in Cognitive Reappraisal: Experiential and Physiological Responses to an Anger Provocation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2, 116-124.

[21]   Jorgensen, S.K., Johnson, T.B., Kolodziej, M.E, et al. (1996) Elevated Blood Pressure and Personality: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 293-320.

[22]   Wrosch, C. and Scheier, M.F. (2003) Personality and Quality of Life: The Importance of Optimism and Goal Adjustment. Quality of Life Research, 12, 59-72.

[23]   Hatchett, T.G. and Park, L.H. (2004) Relationships among Optimism, Coping Styles, Psychopathology and Counseling Outcome. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1755-1769.

[24]   Rahimian, E.B., Asgharnejad Farid, A.A. and Rahiminejad, A. (2008) Relationship between Attachment Style and Mental Health in Adult Survivors of the Bam Earthquake. Psychological Research, 11, 27-40. (In Persian)

[25]   Shokri, O., Moradi, A. and Daneshvar, P.Z., et al. (2008) The Role of Gender Differences in Coping Styles and Mental Health. Contemporary Psychology, 3, 51-61. (In Persian)

[26]   Akbari, A.R. (2009) An Investigation of the Relationship between Secularism and Mental Health. Psychology and Religion, 2, 105-143.

[27]   Alloy, C.B., Abramson, L.Y., Hogan, M.E., et al. (2006) Prospective Incidence of First Onsets and Recurrences of Depression in Individual at High and Low Cognitive Risk for Depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 145-156.

[28]   Shepperd, A.Y., Maroto, Y.Y. and Pbert, A.L. (1996) Dispositional Optimism as a Predictor of Health Changes among Cardiac Patients. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 517-534.

[29]   Karademas, C.E. (2007) Positive and Negative Aspects of Well-Being: Common and Specific Predictors. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 277-287.

[30]   Sepahvand, T., Guilani, B. and Zamani, R. (2007) Relationship between Attributional Styles with Stressful Life Erents and General Health. Psychological Research, 9, 33-46. (In Persian)

[31]   Snyder, C.R. (1991) The Will and the Ways, Development and Validation of an Individual-Differences Measure of Hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.

[32]   Dubey, A., Pandey, R. and Mishra, K. (2010) Role of Emotion Regulation Difficulties and Positive/Negative Affectivity in Explaining Alexithymia-Health Relationship: An Overview. Indian Journal of Social Science, 7, 20-31.

[33]   Hassani, J. (2011) The Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3, 73-84. (In Persian)

[34]   Hassani, J., Azadfallah, P., Rasoulzade Tabatabaie, S.K., et al. (2008) The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies According to Neuroticism and Extraversion Personality Dimensions. Advances in Cognitive Science, 10 1-13. (In Persian)

[35]   Garnefski, N. and Kraaij, V. (2006) Relationship between Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms: A Comparative Study of Five Specific Sample Samples. Personality and Differences, 40, 1659-1669.

[36]   Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoksema, S. and Schweizer, S. (2010) Emotion-Regulation Strategies across Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217-237.

[37]   Butler, A.E., Lee, L.T. and Gross, J.J. (2007) Emotion Regulation and Culture: Are the Social Consequences of Emotion Suppression Culture-Specific. Emotion, 7, 30-48.

[38]   Beeman, O.W. (1988) Affectivity in Persian Language Use. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 12, 9-30.