Back
 FNS  Vol.6 No.10 , July 2015
Assessment of Usual Fruit, Vegetable and Vitamin C Intakes in a Sample of Egyptian Children: Pilot Study
Abstract: The objective was to create an Egyptian database on the contributors of fruit and vegetables in the diets of preschool children and to estimate the usual daily intakes of fruits, vegetables and vitamin C. A total of 59 healthy boys and girls aged 2.5 - 6 years attending day care centers in urban Giza governorate completed the study by interviewing their mothers on 6x non-consecutive days using the 24 h dietary recall. Participants were classified according to age, gender and socioeconomic class. Prevalence of daily consumptions of fruits and vegetables amounted to 22% and 54%, respectively of the total children. The daily intakes of fruits and vegetables averaged 117.5 and 56.4 g, respectively. The consumption of different types of fruits and vegetables was unevenly distributed by different personal and social variables. Estimated daily vitamin C supply from the diet was 38 mg per child, which satisfied the respective recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of 30 mg for the first six years of life. However, the diet of 15% of the children covered less than 75% of RNI. Top fruits contributing to vitamin C were oranges, guava, watermelon, pears and grapes. Extra foods such as chipsy was consumed by 81% of the children, contributed 18% to daily vitamin C supply and also 58.6 mg sodium. A multilevel intervention strategy is warranted for promoting daily fruit and vegetable intake and healthy eating in early childhood.
Cite this paper: Hussein, L. , Hassan, N. , Mohamad, M. and Aziz, S. (2015) Assessment of Usual Fruit, Vegetable and Vitamin C Intakes in a Sample of Egyptian Children: Pilot Study. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 923-934. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.610096.
References

[1]   Yngve, A., Wolf, A., Poortvliet, E., Elmadfa, I., Brug, J., Ehrenblad, B., et al. (2005) Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Sample of 11-Year-Old Children in 9 European Countries: The Pro Children Cross-Sectional Survey. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 49, 236-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000087247

[2]   WHO (2008-2013) Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[3]   Agudo, A., Slimani, N., Ocke, M.C., et al. (2002) Consumption of Vegetables, Fruit and Other Plant Foods in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts from 10 European Countries. Public Health Nutrition, 5, 1179-1196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2002398

[4]   Domitrović, R. (2006) Vitamin C in Disease Prevention and Therapy. Biochemia Medica, 16, 107-125.

[5]   Lee, S.K. and Kader, A.A. (2000) Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Vitamin C Content of Horticultural Crops. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 20, 207-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(00)00133-2

[6]   Sinha, R., Block, G. and Taylor, P.R. (1993) Problems with Estimating Vitamin C Intakes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 547-550.

[7]   Hunt, J.R., Gallagher, S.K. and Johnson, L.A.K. (l994) Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Apparent Iron Absorption by Women with Low Iron Stores. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 138l-1385.

[8]   England, S. and Seifter, S. (1986) The Biochemical Functions of Ascorbic Acid. Annual Review of Nutrition, 6, 365- 406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.06.070186.002053

[9]   Buettner, G.R. (1993) The Pecking Order of Free Radicals and Antioxidants: Lipid Peroxidation, Alpha-Tocopherol, and Ascorbate. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 300, 535-543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1993.1074

[10]   Harrison, F.E. and May, J.M. (2009) Vitamin C Function in the Brain: Vital Role of the Ascorbate Transporter SVCT2. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 46, 719-730.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.12.018

[11]   Birch, L., Savage, J.S. and Ventura, A. (2007) Influences on the Development of Children’s Eating Behaviours: From Infancy to Adolescence. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 68, s1-s56.

[12]   Duffey, K.J., Gordon-Larsen, P., Shikany, J.M., Jacobs, D.R. and Popkin, B.M. (2010) Food Price and Diet and Health Outcomes: 20 Years of the CARDIA Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 420-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2009.545

[13]   Bowman, S.A. and Vinyard, B.T. (2004) Fast Food Consumption of U.S. Adults: Impact on Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Overweight Status. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23, 163-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2004.10719357

[14]   Schroder, H., Covas, M., Elosua, R., Mora, J. and Marrugat, J. (2008) Diet Quality and Life Style Associated with Free Selected Low-Energy Density Diets in a Representative Spanish Population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 1194-1200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602843

[15]   ElShaks (1995) Indicators for Assessing the Socioexonomic Status of Households. Anglo Egyptian Press.

[16]   Gibson, R. and Fergujson, E. (1999) An Interacting 24 Hour Recall for Assessing the Adequacy of Iron and Zinc Intakes in Developing Countries.1st Edition, Life Sci Inst, Washington DC.

[17]   Pennington, J. (1992) Total Diet Studies. The Identification of Core Foods in the United States Food Supply. Food Additives and Contaminants, 9, 253-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652039209374069

[18]   WHO (2012) GEMS/Food Programme: Report of the WHO Working Group on Collection of Food Consumption Data (COFOCO), 30 January 2012.

[19]   Horwitz, W., Ed. (1990) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edition, 967.22, 1059-1060, AOAC, USA.

[20]   WHO/FAO (2001) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirement.

[21]   Gibson, R.S. (2005) Principles of Nutritional Assessment. 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Dunedin, Chap. 6, 129-149.

[22]   Morgan, K.J., Johnson, S.R. and Goumaetas, B. (1987) Analysis of a 12 Day Data Using Persistence Measures. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 326-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/126.2.326

[23]   De Bourdeaudhuij, I., te Velde, S., Brug, J., Due, P., et al. (2008) Personal, Social and Environmental Predictors of Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake in 11-Year-Old Children in Nine European Countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 834-841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602794

[24]   Rangan, A.M., Kwan, J.S.L., Louie, J.C.Y., Flood, V.M. and Gill, T.P. (2011) Changes in Core Food Intake among Australian Children between 1995 and 2007. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65, 1201-1210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.109

[25]   Leite, F.M., Ferreira, H.S., Bezerra, M.K., de Assunção, M.L. and Horta, B.L. (2013) Food Intake and Nutritional Status of Preschool from Maroon Communities of the State Alagoas, Brazil. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 31, 444-451.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822013000400005

[26]   Darmon, N. and Drewnowski, A. (2008) Does Social Class Predict Diet Quality? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 1107-1117.

[27]   Kaur, P., Dahiya, S. and Rana, M.K. (2007) Food and Nutrient Intake of Pre-School Children (2-6 Year) of Sonepat District. Journal of Dairying, Foods Home Sciences, 26, 141-146.

[28]   Christian, M.S., Evans, C.E.L., Hancock, N., Nykjaer, C. and Cade, J.E. (2012) Family Meals Can Help Children Reach Their 5 A Day: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Children’s Dietary Intake from London Primary Schools. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health, 67, 332-338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2012-201604

[29]   Keast, D.R., Fulgoni, V.L., Nicklas, T.A. and O’Neil, C.E. (2013) Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. Nutrients, 5, 283-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5010283

[30]   Rose, D. and Oliveira, V. (1997) Nutrient Intakes of Individuals from Food-Insufficient Households in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1956-1961.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.12.1956

[31]   Jahns, L., Carriquiry, A., Arab, L., Mroz, T.A. and Popkin, B.M. (2004) Within- and Between-Person Variation in Nutrient Intakes of Russian and U.S. Children Differs by Sex and Age. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 3114-3120.

[32]   Arsenault, J.E., Yakes, E.A., Islam, M.M., Hossain, M.B., et al. (2012) Very Low Adequacy of Micronutrient Intakes by Young Children and Women in Rural Bangladesh is Primarily Explained by Low Food Intake and Limited Diversity. Journal of Nutrition, 143, 197-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.169524

[33]   Faber, M. and Laubscher, R. (2008) Seasonal Availability and Dietary Intake of β-Carotene-Rich Vegetables and Fruit of 2-Year-Old to 5-Year-Old Children in a Rural South African Setting Growing These Crops at Household Level. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59, 46-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480701664852

[34]   Hautvast, J.L.A., van der Heijden, L.J.M., Luneta, A.K., et al. (1999) Food Consumption of Young Stunted and Non- Stunted Children in Rural Zambia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 50-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600676

[35]   Brion, M.J., Ness, A.R., Smith, G.D., Emmett, P., et al. (2008) Sodium Intake in Infancy and Blood Pressure at 7 Years. Findings from the Avan Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 1162-1169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602837

[36]   Levine, M., Wang, Y., Padayatty, S.J. and Morrow, J. (2001) A New Recommended Dietary Allowance of Vitamin C for Healthy Young Women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 9842-9846.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.171318198

[37]   Patrick, H. and Nicklas, T.A. (2005) A Review of Family and Social Determinants of Children’s Eating Patterns and Diet Quality. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 24, 83-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2005.10719448

 
 
Top