Back
 AD  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2015
New Records and Observations on Paleo-American Artifacts from Cerro Largo, Northeastern Uruguay and a Peculiar Case of Reclaimed Fishtail Points
Abstract: A research program directed to deepening the knowledge and understanding of Paleo-American “fishtail” points is being carried out. In pursuit this goal, lithic remains from Cerro Largo department, northeastern Uruguay is examined. One of the samples comes from Paso Centurión, a surface site that has yielded the greatest number of fishtail points in Uruguay. There, and at the Paso Taborda site, several exemplars were reworked as scraping tools, constituting a peculiar case of stone tool recycling and reclaiming by post-Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. The examined collection shed new light on regional lithic assemblages, stone tool behavior and the early colonization of southeastern South America. Additionally, the study of other Uruguayan fishtails show the use of edge-to-edge and overshot flaking, technical features shared with Paleoindian fishtailed points from North and Central America. Similarities with other Paleoindian points from both hemispheres of the New World in relation to the SouthAmerican fishtail origins are discussed.
Cite this paper: Nami, H. (2015) New Records and Observations on Paleo-American Artifacts from Cerro Largo, Northeastern Uruguay and a Peculiar Case of Reclaimed Fishtail Points. Archaeological Discovery, 3, 114-127. doi: 10.4236/ad.2015.33011.
References

[1]   Adovasio, J., & Page, J. (2002). The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery. New York: Random House.

[2]   Akazawa, T., & Szathmary, E. J. E. (Eds.) (1999). Prehistoric Mongoloid Dispersals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[3]   Amick, D. S. (1995). Patterns of Technological Variation among Folsom and Midland Projectile Points in the American Southwest. Plains Anthropologist, 40, 23-38.

[4]   Amick, D. S. (1996). Hunter-Gatherer Land Use. World Archaeology, 27, 411-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1996.9980317

[5]   Anderson, D. G., Bissett, T. G., & Yerka, S. J. (2013). The Late Pleistocene Human Settlement of Interior North America: The Role of Physiography and Sea Level Change. In K. E. Graf, C. V. Ketron, & M. R. Waters (Eds.), Paleoamerican Odyssey (pp. 183-203). College Station, TX: Center for the Study of the First Americans.

[6]   Baeza, J., & Femenias, J. (1999). Nuevas observaciones sobre puntas colas de pescado. Paper presented at the 1st Conference on Pampean Archaeology, Rosario.

[7]   Baeza, J., Diaz, A., Melgar, W., Caimi, A., Etcheverry, C., Barone, J., Lucas, L., Gereda, C., Borcha A., & Barboza, E. (1980). Informe preliminar sobre los Cerritos en la zona anegadiza de Canada de las Pajas (Cerro Largo). III Congreso Nacional de Arqueologia (1974). Anales, Montevideo: Centro de Estudios Arqueologicos.

[8]   Baeza, J., Femenias, J., Suarez, R., & Florines, A. (2001). Investigacion arqueologica en el rio Negro medio (Informe preliminar). Arqueologia uruguaya hacia el fin del milenio, X Congreso Nacional de Arqueologia, Vol. 1, Colonia del Sacramento, 16-19 de Junio 1997, 285-295. (Montevideo: Asociacion Uruguaya de Arqueologia)

[9]   Bahamondes, F., & Jackson, D. (2006). Hallazgo de una punta “Cola de Pescado” en Magallanes, Chile. Magallania, 34, 115-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-22442006000200011

[10]   Binford, L. R. (1979). Organization and Formation Process: Looking at Curated Technologies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 35, 255-273.

[11]   Bird, J. (1969). A Comparison of South Chilean and Ecuatorial “Fishtail” Projectile Points. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, 40, 52-71.

[12]   Bonomo, M. (2012). Historia Prehispanica de Entre Rios. Buenos Aires: Fundacion de Historia Natural “Felix de Azara”.

[13]   Bosch, A., Femenias, J., & Olivera, A. (1980). Dispersion de las puntas liticas pisciformes en el Uruguay. III Congreso Nacional de Arqueologia. Anales. Montevideo: Centro de Estudios Arqueologicos.

[14]   Bradley, B. A. (1982). Flaked Stone Technology and Typology. In G. Frison, & D. J. Stanford (Eds.), The Agate Basin Site (pp. 181-208). New York: Academic Press.

[15]   Bradley, B. A., Collins, M. B., & Hemmings, A. (2010). Clovis Technology. Archaeological Series 17, Ann Arbor, MA: International Monographs in Prehistory.

[16]   Briceno Rosario, J. G. (1999). Quebrada Santa Maria: Las puntas cola de pescado y la antigüedad del hombre en Sudamerica. Boletin de Arqueologia PUCP, 3, 19-39.

[17]   Bueno, L., Schmidt Dias, A., & Steele, J. (2013). The Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Archaeological Record in Brazil: A Geo-Referenced Database. Quaternary International, 301, 74-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.03.042

[18]   Cabrera Perez, L. (2005). Patrimonio y arqueologia en el Sur de Brasil y region este de Uruguay: Los Cerritos de Indios. SALDVIE, No. 5, 221-254.

[19]   Callahan, E. (1979) The Basics of Biface Knapping in the Eastern Fluted Point Tradition. A Manual for Flintknappers and Lithic Analysts. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 7, 1-180.

[20]   Callahan, E. (1981). Pamunkey Housebuilding: An Experimental Study of Late Woodland Construction Technology in the Powhatan Confederacy. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington DC: Catholic University of America.

[21]   Castineira, C., Cardillo, M., Charlin, J., & Baeza, J. (2011). Analisis de morfometria geometrica en puntas Cola de Pescado del Uruguay. Latin American Antiquity, 22, 335-358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7183/1045-6635.22.3.335

[22]   Chase, A. F., Chase, D. Z., & Topsey, H. W. (1988). Archaeology and the Ethics of Collecting. Archaeology, 41, 56-60.

[23]   Cooke, R., & Sanchez, L. A. (2003). Panama prehispanico: Tiempo, ecologia y geografia politica (Una brevisima sintesis). Istmo, 7.
http://collaborations.denison.edu/istmo/n07/articulos/tiempo.html

[24]   da Silva Lopes, L., & Nami, H. G. (2011). A New Fishtail Point Find from South Brazil. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 28, 104-107.

[25]   Dias, A. S. (2007). Da tipologia à tecnologia: Reflexoes sobre das indústrias liticas da Tradicao Umbu. In L. Bueno, & A. Isnardis (Eds.), Das Pedras aos Homens: Tecnologia Litica na Arqueologia Brasileira (pp. 33-66). Belo Horizonte: Argentum Editora.

[26]   Diaz Rodriguez, L. H. (2008). Una punta tipo “cola de pescado” con acanaladura de Quillane, Arequipa. Tambo: Boletin de Arqueologia, 1, 73-82.

[27]   Dillehay, T. (2011). From Foraging to Farming in the Andes: New Perspectives on Food Production and Social Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511793790

[28]   Femenias, J., Nami, H. G., Florines, A., & Toscano, A. (2011). GIS Archaeological Site Record and Remarks on Paleoindian finds in the Rio Negro River Basin, Central Uruguay. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 28, 98-101.

[29]   Figueira, J. H. (1892). Los primitivos habitantes del Uruguay. In El Uruguay en la exposicion historica americana de Madrid (pp. 121-219). Montevideo: Imprenta Artistica Americana de Dornaleche y Reyes.

[30]   Flegenheimer, N., Bayon, C., Valente, M., Baeza, J., & Femenias, J. (2003). Long Distance Tool Stone Transport in the Argentine Pampas. Quaternary International, 109-110, 49-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6182(02)00202-1

[31]   Flegenheimer, N., Colombo, M., & Pupio, A. (2009). Catalogo para Replicas de las Primeras Ocupaciones Pampeanas. Grupo de Arqueologia en las Pampas, Necochea: Municipalidad de Necochea.

[32]   Flegenheimer, N., Miotti, L., & Mazzia, N. (2013). Rethinking Early Objects and Landscapes in the Southern Cone: Fishtail-Point Concentrations in the Pampas and Northern Patagonia. In K. E. Graf, C. V. Ketron, & M. R. Waters (Eds.), Paleoamerican Odissey (pp. 359-376). College Station, TX: Center for the Study of the First Americans.

[33]   Flegenheimer, N., Weitzel, C., &. Mazzia, N. (2015). Miniature Points in an Exceptional Early South American Context. World Archaeology, 47, 117-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2014.991806

[34]   Gamble, C. (1996). Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[35]   Garcia, A. M. (2012). Sitio arqueologico do Pororo: Um Cerrito na mesoregiao centro ocidental riograndense (Pinhal Grande). Master’s Thesis, Rio Grande do Sul: Universidad Federal de Santa Maria.

[36]   Goebel, T., Waters, M. R., & O’Rourke, D. H. (2008). The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas. Science, 319, 1497-1502.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1153569

[37]   Graf, K. E., Ketron, C. V., & Waters, M. R. (Eds.) (2013). Paleoamerican Odyssey. College Station: Center for the Study of the First Americans.

[38]   Hester, T. R., Steele, D. G., & Eaton, J. D. (1983). Fluted Projectile Point from Belize, Central America. Lithic Technology, 11, 29-34.

[39]   Holmes, W. H. (1919). Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities. Part 1: Introductory and the Lithic Industries. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 60, Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution.

[40]   Inizan, M. L., & Tixier, J. (1978). Outrepassage intentionnel sur pieces bifaciales neolithiques du Qatar (Golfe arabo-persique). Quaternaria, 20, 29-40.

[41]   Iriarte, J. (2006). Landscape Transformation, Mounded Villages, and Adopted Cultigens: The Rise of Early Formative Communities in Southeastern Uruguay. World Archaeology, 38, 644-663.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438240600963262

[42]   Iriarte, J., Holst, I., Marozzi, O., Listopad, C., Alonso, E., Rinderknecht, A., & Montana, J. (2004). Evidence for Cultivar Adoption and Emerging Complexity during the Mid-Holocene in the La Plata Basin, Uruguay. Nature, 432, 614-617.

[43]   Jennings, T. A. (2008). San Patrice: An Example of Late Paleoindian Adaptive Versatility in South-Central North America. American Antiquity, 73, 539-559.

[44]   Kuhn, S. L. (1992). On Planning and Curated Technologies in the Middle Paleolithic. Journal of Anthropological Research, 48, 185-214.

[45]   Laguens, A., Pautassi, E. A., Sario, G. M., & Cattaneo, G. R. (2007). ELS1, A Fishtail Projectile Point Site from Central Argentina. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 24, 55-57.

[46]   Liu, H., Prugnolle, F., Manica, A., & Balloux, F. (2006).A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 79, 230-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/505436

[47]   Lopez Mazz, J. (2013). El poblamiento temprano del este de Uruguay. In M. Bruno (Ed.), Prehistoria de Rocha (pp. 63-84). Rocha: Comuna de Rocha/MEC.

[48]   Loponte, D., Carbonera M., & Silvestre, R. (2015). Fishtail Projectile Points from South America: The Brazilian Record. Archaeological Discovery, 3, 85-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.33009

[49]   Martinez, G. (2001). “Fish-Tail” Projectile Points and Megamammals: New Evidence from Paso Otero 5 (Argentina). Antiquity, 75, 523-528.

[50]   Martinez, S., Veroslavsky, G., & Verde, M. (1997). Primer registro de Paleoceno en el Uruguay: Paleosuelos calcareos fosiliferos en la cuenca de Santa Lucia. Revista Brasileira de Geociencias, 27, 295-302.

[51]   Mayer-Oakes, W. (1986). El Inga. A Paleoindian Site in the Sierra of Northern Ecuador. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 76, 1-335.

[52]   Meltzer, D. (2009). First Peoples in a New World. Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

[53]   Meneghin, U. (2015). Secuencia crono-estratigrafica de Urupez II: Nuevas dataciones radiometricas. Origenes, 13, 1-20.

[54]   Miller, E. (1969). Resultados preliminares das escavacoes no sitio pre-ceramico RS-LN-1: Cerrito Dalpiaz (abrigo-sob- rocha). Iheringia, 1, 43-112.

[55]   Nami, H. G. (1984). Analisis de microdesgaste de algunos artefactos liticos del sitio Casa de Piedra 1. In C. J. Gradin (Ed.), Investigaciones arqueologicas en Casa de Piedra, provincias de Buenos Aires, La Pampa y Rio Negro (pp. 66-89). Buenos Aires: Direccion General de Cultura, Provincia de La Pampa, Ente Ejecutivo Presa Embalse de Casa de Piedra.

[56]   Nami, H. G. (1987). Cueva del Medio: Perspectivas arqueologicas para la Patagonia Austral. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 17, 71-106.

[57]   Nami, H. G. (1988/1990). Simulacion y replica de las puntas de proyectil. In J. Fernandez (Ed.), La Cueva de Haichol. Arqueologia de los pinares cordilleranos del Neuquen. Anales de Arqueologia y Etnologia, 42/45, 227-241.

[58]   Nami, H. G. (1992). Nuevos datos en relacion a las puntas de proyectil paleoindias encontradas en el Cono Sur (Neuquen, Argentina). Palimpsesto: Revista de Arqueologia, 1, 71-74.

[59]   Nami, H. G. (2003). Experimentos para explorar la secuencia de reduccion Fell de la Patagonia Austral. Magallania, 30, 107-138.

[60]   Nami, H. G. (2007). Research in the Middle Negro River Basin (Uruguay) and the Paleoindian Occupation of the Southern Cone. Current Anthropology, 48, 164-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/510465

[61]   Nami, H. G. (2010a). Tecnologia Paleoindia de Sudamerica: Nuevos experimentos y observaciones para conocer la secu- encia de reduccion Fell. Origenes, 9, 1-40.

[62]   Nami, H. G. (2010b). Late Pleistocene Technology in the New World: Bone Artifacts from Cueva del Medio and Other Sites in the Southern Cone of South America. In A. Legrand-Pineau, I. Sidera, N. Buc, E. David, & V. Scheinsohn (Eds.), Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, Technological and Functional Signature (pp. 279- 286). Oxford: BAR International Series.

[63]   Nami, H. G. (2013). Archaelogy, Paleoindian Research and Lithic Technology in the Middle Negro River, Central Uruguay. Archaeological Discovery, 1, 1-22.

[64]   Nami, H. G. (2014a). Arqueologia del último milenio del Pleistoceno en el Cono Sur de Sudamerica, puntas de proyectil y observaciones sobre tecnologia Paleoindia en el Nuevo Mundo. In M. Farias, & A. Lourdeau (Eds.), Peuplement et modalites d’occupation de l’Amerique du sud: L’apport de la technologie lithique (pp. 279-336).

[65]   Nami, H. G. (2014b). Secuencias de Reduccion Bifaciales Paleoindias y Puntas Fell en el Valle del Ilalo (Ecuador): Observaciones para comprender la tecnologia litica pleistocenica en Sudamerica. In M. Farias, & A. Lourdeau (Eds.), Peuplement et modalites d’occupation de l’Amerique du sud: L’apport de la technologie lithique (pp. 179-220).

[66]   Nami, H. G. (2015). Paleo American Artifacts from Cerro Largo, Northeastern Uruguay. Paleo America, 1, in Press.

[67]   Nami, H. G., & Castro, A. (2014). Fishtail Points, Technology and Microwear Analysis from the Negro River basin, Uruguay. Archaeological Discovery, 2, 65-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.23008

[68]   Nami, H. G., & Heusser, C. J. (2015). Cueva del Medio: A Paleoindian Site and Its Environmental Setting in Southern South America. Archaeological Discovery, 3, 62-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.32007

[69]   Nami, H. G., Duran, V. A., Cortegoso, V., & Giesso, M. (2015). Analisis morfologico-experimental y por fluorescencia de rayos X de las puntas de proyectil de obsidiana del ajuar de Uspallata Usina Sur (Mendoza, Argentina). Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Arqueologia, in press.

[70]   Patane Araoz, J., & Nami, H. G. (2014). The First Paleoindian Fishtail Point Find in Salta Province, Northwestern Argentina. Archaeological Discovery, 2, 26-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.22004

[71]   Pearson, G., & Ream, J. (2005). Clovis on the Caribbean Coast of Venezuela. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 22, 28- 30.

[72]   Politis, G., Gonzalez Ruibal, A., & Hernando, A. (2013). Ethno-arqueologia do descarte de pontas de fleche entre os Awa. In A. Hernando, & E. M. Beserra Coelho (Eds.), Estudos sobre os Awa: Cacadores-Coletores (pp. 131-154). Sao Luis: EDUFMA/IWGIA.

[73]   Prates, L., Politis, G., & Steele, J. (2013). Radiocarbon Chronology of the Early Human Occupation of Argentina. Quaternary International, 301, 104-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.03.011

[74]   Rondeau, M. F. (2009). Fluted Points of the Far West. Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology, 21, 265-274.

[75]   Root, M. (1993). Analyses of Stone Tools and Flaking Debris. In M. Root (Ed.), Site 32DU955A: Folsom Occupation of the Knife River Flint Primary Source Area. Phase III (Part I) Archaeological Data Recovery at Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, Dunn County, North Dakota: Interim Report for 1992-1993 Investigations at 32DU955A (pp. 179-227). Research Report 22, Pullman: Washington State University.

[76]   Schiffer, M. B. (1987). Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

[77]   Schmitz, P. I. (1987). Prehistoric Hunter and Gatherers of Brazil. Journal of World Prehistory, 1, 53-126.

[78]   Schobinger, J. (1974). Nuevos hallazgos de puntas “Cola de Pescado” y consideraciones en torno al origen y dispersion de la Cultura de Cazadores Superiores Toldense en Sudamerica. Atti del XL Congresso Internazionale degle Americanisti, 1, 33-50.

[79]   Shott, M. J. (2013). Human Colonization and Late Pleistocene Lithic Industries of the Americas. Quaternary International, 285, 150-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2010.12.034

[80]   Snarskis, M. J. (1979). Turrialba: A Paleo-Indian Quarry and Workshop Site in Eastern Costa Rica. American Antiquity, 44, 125-138.

[81]   Stanford, D. J., & Bradley, B. (2012). Across the Atlantic Ice. The Origins of American’s Clovis Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[82]   Suarez, R. (2009). Arqueologia durante la transicion pleistoceno-holoceno: Componentes paleoindios y movilidad de los primeros americanos en Uruguay. Doctoral Dissertation, La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata.

[83]   Taddei, A. (1980). Un yacimiento de cazadores superiores en el Rio Negro (Paso del Puerto) (Uruguay). III Congreso Nacional de Arqueologia (1974), Anales, Montevideo: Centro de Estudios Arqueologicos.

[84]   Taddei, A. (1987). Algunos aspectos de la arqueologia prehistorica de Uruguay. Estudios Atacamenos, 8, 65-89.

[85]   Turner, E., & Hester, T. (1985). A Field Guide to Stone Artifacts of Texas Indians. Houston, TX: Lone Star Books.

[86]   Vaquero, M., Alonso, S., Garcia-Catalan, S., Garcia-Hernandez, A., Gomez de Soler, B., Rettig, D., & Soto, M. (2012). Temporal Nature and Recycling of Upper Paleolithic Artifacts: The Burned Tools from the Moli del Salt Site (Vimbodi i Poblet, Northeastern Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, 2785-2796.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.04.024

[87]   White, A. A. (2013). Functional and Stylistic Variability in Paleoindian and Early Archaic Projectile Points from Midcontinental Northamerica. North American Archaeologist, 34, 71-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/NA.34.1.c

[88]   Whittaker, J., Ferg, A., & Speth, J. D. (1988). Arizona bifaces of Wyoming chert. The Kiva, 53, 321-334.

[89]   Wiessner, P. (1983). Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile Points. American Antiquity, 48, 253-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/280450

 
 
Top