JWARP  Vol.7 No.11 , July 2015
Spring Water Qualitative Assessment in Mountainous Areas, Case Study: Soreq Catchment/Ramallah/West Bank
ABSTRACT
The hydrochemical characteristics of spring waters in the Soreq-Catchment were determined to identify pollutants in the springs. The ion concentrations were within the allowable WHO limits except two springs located within the center of the populated areas. The water of most of the springs is contaminated with fecal coliform and total coliform. The concentration of nitrate shows moderate values below the WHO limits. The springs in the study area show higher concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Mn, As, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Al, Fe, and V) exceeding the permissible standards set by WHO (2007). Most springs in the study area are of water type (Ca-Mg-HCO3-). Piper’s classification ranges from normal earth alkaline water with prevailing bicarbonate and chloride in both seasons. Comparing the quality of spring water with standards for different uses proved that some springs are unsuitable for human drinking purposes.

Cite this paper
Jebreen, H. and Ghanem, M. (2015) Spring Water Qualitative Assessment in Mountainous Areas, Case Study: Soreq Catchment/Ramallah/West Bank. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 851-859. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711069.
References
[1]   World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality [Electronic Resource]: Incorporating First Addendum. Vol. 1, Recommendations. 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.who.int

[2]   Avisar, D., Rosenthala, E., Flexera, A., Shulmana, Ben-Avrahama, Z. and Guttman, J. (2002) Salinity Sources of Kefar Uriya Wells in the Judea Group Aquifer of Israel. Part 1-Conceptual Hydrogeological Model. Journal of Hydrology, 270, 27-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00216-0

[3]   Shalash, I. and Ghanem, M. (2008) Hydrochemistry of the Natuv Drainage Basin in Ramallah Area/West Bank. Environmental Geology, 55, 359-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0981-6

[4]   Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) (2001) Water Resources Assessment in the West Bank for 2003. Hydrology Department, Ramallah.

[5]   Ghanem, M. (1999) Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of the Faria Drainage Basin/West Bank. PhD Thesis, Technische Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.

[6]   Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) (2005) Population, Housing and Establishment Census, Final Results-Population Report. Ramallah & Al-Bireh Governorate, First Part. PCBS, Ramallah.

[7]   Abed, A. and Wishahi, S. (1999) Geology of Palestine: The West Bank and Gaza Strip. Palestinian Hydrology Group, Jerusalem.

[8]   SUSMAQ (2004) Numerical Regional Pollution Model of the Western Aquifer Basin. Report SUSMAQ-POL #47, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

[9]   World Health Organization (WHO) (2007) Guide Fine for Drinking Water Quality Recommendation. 4th Edition, WHO, Geneva, 36 p.

[10]   Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) (2001) Water Resources Assessment in the West Bank for 2003. PWA, Ramallah.

[11]   Todd, D.K. (1980) Groundwater Hydrology. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 535 p.

[12]   Todd, D.K. (2007) Groundwater Hydrology. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., India, 535 p.

 
 
Top