FNS  Vol.2 No.5 , July 2011
Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt
Abstract: Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.
Cite this paper: nullS. Vij, S. Hati and D. Yadav, "Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 502-509. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.25073.

[1]   R. J. Wynstra, “Intsoy Agenda: Expanding the Use of Soybeans,” College of Agriculture, University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign, 1986, p. 20.

[2]   N. C. Nielsen, “Soybean Seed Composition,” In: D. P. S. Verma and R. C. Shoemaker, Eds., Soybean: Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, CABI, Wallingford, 1996, pp. 127-163.

[3]   T. Zind, “Making the Case for Soy,” Food Processing, Vol. 25, No. 7, 1998, pp. 31-34.

[4]   S. Dhananjay, S. Kulkarni, K. G. Kapanoor, V. K. Naganagouda and H. M. Veerappa, “Reduction of Flatus-Inducing Factors in Soymilk by Immobilized α-Galactosidase,” Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2006, pp. 51-57.

[5]   H. Korhonen and A. Pihlanto, “Food-derived Bioactive Peptides—Opportunities for Designing Future Foods,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, Vol. 9, No. 16, 2003, pp. 1297-1308. doi:10.2174/1381612033454892

[6]   R. S. Muthyala, Y. H. Ju, S. L. D. Sheng and L. Williams, “Equol, a Natural Estrogenic Metabolite from Soy Isofla-Ones: Convenient Preparation and Resolution of R-and S-equolsand Their Differing Binding and Biological Activity through Estrogen Receptors Alpha and Beta,” Bioorganic and Medicine Chemistry , Vol. 12, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1559-1567. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2003.11.035

[7]   K. D. Setchell, C. Clerici, E. D. Lephart, S. J. Cole, C. Heenan and D. Castellani, “S-Equol a Potent Ligand for Estrogen Receptor Beta, is the Exclusive Enantiomeric form of the Soy Isoflavone Metabolite Produced by Human Intestinal Bacterial Flora,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1072-1079.

[8]   D. Fukushima, “Recent Progress in Research and Technology on Soybeans,” Food Science and Technology Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2001, pp. 8-16. doi:10.3136/fstr.7.8

[9]   C. P. Champagne, J. Green-Johnson, Y. Raymond, J. Barrette and N. Buckley, “Selection of Probiotic Bacteria for the Fermentation of a Soy Beverage in Combination with Streptococcus thermophils,” Food Research International, Vol. 42, No. 5-6, 2009, pp. 612-621. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2008.12.018

[10]   H. Kikuchi-Hayakawa, N. Onodera, S. Matsubara, E. Yasuda, O. Chonan, R. Takahashi and F. Ishikawa, “Effects of Soy Milk and Bifidobacterium Fermented Soy Milk on Lipid Metabolism in Aged Ovariectomized Rats,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Vol. 62, No. 9, 1998, pp. 1688-1692. doi:10.1271/bbb.62.1688

[11]   H. Sekizaki, R. Yokosawa, C. Chinen, H. Adachi and Y. Yamane, “Synthesis is Isoflavones and Their Attracting Activity to Aphanomyces Euteiches Zoospore,” Biol Pharm Bull, Vol. 16, No. 7, 1993, pp. 698-701.

[12]   H. Wei, L. Wei, K. Frenkel, R. Bowen and S. Barnes, “Inhibition of Tumor Promoter-Induced Hydrogen Peroxide Formation in Vitro and in Vivo by Genistein,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 20, 1993, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1080/01635589309514265

[13]   S. Y. Lee, C. V. Morr and A. Seo, “Comparison of Milk-Based and Soymilk-Based Yogurt,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 55, No. 2, 1990, pp. 532-536. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb06803.x

[14]   D. Fukushima, “Recent Progress in Research and Technology on Soybeans,” Food Science and Technology Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2001, pp. 8-16. doi:10.3136/fstr.7.8

[15]   D. K. Cherry and D. A. Woodwell, “National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2000 Summary. Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics (No. 3282002),” National Center for Health, Statistics Hyattsville, MD, 2002.

[16]   F. Ishikawa, “Probiotic Foods Expected to Prevent Life-Style Derived Diseases,” Healthist, Vol. 150, No. 69, 2002, pp. 69-76 (in Japanese).

[17]   H. Kikuchi-Hayakawa, N. Onodera-Masuoka, M. Kano, S. Matsubara, E. Yasuda and F. Ishikawa, “Effect of Soy Milk and Bi?dobacterium-Fermented Soy Milk on Plasma and Liver Lipids in Ovariectomized Syrian Hamsters,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo), Vol. 46, No. 2, 2000, pp. 105-108.

[18]   M. Kishi, M. Fukaya, Y. Tsukamoto, T. Nagasawa and N. Nishizawa, “Enhancing Effect of Dietary Vinegar on the Intestinal Absorption of Calcium in Ovariectomized Rats,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Vol. 63, No. 5, 1999, pp. 905-910. doi:10.1271/bbb.63.905

[19]   M. Tamura, K. Hirayama and K. Itoh, “Role of intestinal Flora on the Metabolism, Absorption and Biological Activity of Dietary ?avonoids,” Bioscience Micro?ora, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2003, pp. 125-131.

[20]   S. Frantz, “Antihypertensive Treatments—ALLHATs off to the Golden Oldie,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 91-110. doi:10.1038/nrd1022

[21]   B. Hernadez, P. J. Martin-Alvarez and E. Pueyo, “Assessment of Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Activity: Influence of Inhibition Type,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Che- mistry, Vol. 51, No. 15, 2003, pp. 4175-4179. doi:10.1021/jf034148o

[22]   E. D. Crook and S. Penumalee, “Therapeutic Controversies in Hypertension Management: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Diabetic Nephropathy? ACE Inhibitors,” Ethnicity and Disease, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1-4.

[23]   J. Johnston, F. Volhard, “Renin-Angiotensin System: A Dual Tissue and Hormonal System for Cardiovascular Control,” Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 10, No. 7, 1992, pp. 13-26. doi:10.1097/00004872-199212000-00002

[24]   A. Kimura, A. Takada, T. Okada and H. Yamada, “Microbial Manufacture of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibiting Peptides,” Koho 2000, JP 229996 A2 22, 2000, p. 11.

[25]   K. Inoue, T. Gotou, H. Kitajima, S. Mizuno, T. Nakazawa and N. Yamamoto, ‘‘Release of Antihypertensive Peptides in Miso Paste during Its Fermentation, by the Addition of Casein,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 108, No. 2, 2009, pp. 111-115. doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.03.007

[26]   S. H. Kim, Y. J. Lee and D. Y. Kwon, “Isolation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor from Doenjang,” Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 31,1999, pp. 848-854.

[27]   O. N. Donkor, A. Henriksson, T. Vasiljevic and N. P. Shah, “Rheological Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Set-Type Soy Yoghurt,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 24, 2007, pp. 9868-9876. doi:10.1021/jf071050r

[28]   G. H. Anderson and S. E. Moore, “Dietary Proteins in the Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight in Humans,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 4, 2004, pp. 974-979.

[29]   N. Tachibana, I. Matsumoto, K. Fukui, S. Arai, H. Kato, K. Abe and K. Takamatsu, “Intake of Soy Protein Isolate Alters Hepatic Gene Expression in Rats,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 10, 2005, pp. 4253-4257. doi:10.1021/jf0481103

[30]   Y. Wang, P. J. Jones, L. M. Ausman and A. H. Lichtenstein, “Soy Protein Reduces Triglyceride Levels and Triglyceride Fatty Acid Fractional Synthesis Rate in Hypercholes-terolemic Subjects,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 173, No. 2, 2004, pp. 269-275. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.12.015

[31]   S. Desroches, J. F. Mauger, L. M. Ausman, A. H. Lichtenstein and B. Lamarche, “Soy Protein Favorably Affects LDL Size Independently of Isoflavones in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 3, 2004, pp. 574-579.

[32]   H. Kikuchi-Hayakawa, H. Shibahara-Sone, K. Osada, N. Onodera-Masuoka, F. Ishikawa and M. Watanuki, “Lower Plasma Triglyceride Level in Syrian Hamsters Fed on Skim Milk. Fermented with Lactobacillus Casei Strain Shirota,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2000, pp. 466-475. doi:10.1271/bbb.64.466

[33]   J. R. Liu, M. J. Chen and C. W. Lin, “Antimutagenic and Antioxidant Properties of Milk Kefir and Soymilk-Kefir,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2005, pp. 2467-2474. doi:10.1021/jf048934k

[34]   R. A. King, J. L. Broadbent and R. J. Head, “Absorption and Excretion of the Soy Isoflavone Genistein in Rats,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 126, No. 1, 1996, pp. 176-182.

[35]   J. Sfakianos, L. Coward, M. Kirk and S. Barnes, “Intestinal Uptake and Biliary Excretion of the Isoflavone Genistein in the Rat,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 127, No. 7, 1997, pp. 1260-1268.

[36]   A. J. Day, F. J. Canada, J. C. D?′az, P. A. Kroon, R. Mclauchlan, C. B. Faulds, G. W. Plumb, M. R. Morgan and G. Williamson, “Dietary Flavonoid and Isoflavone Glycosides are Hydrolysed by the Lactase Site of Lactase Phlorizin Hydrolase,” FEBS Letters, Vol. 468, No. 2, 2000, pp. 166-170. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01211-4

[37]   M. Shiomi, K. Sasaki, M. Murofushi and K. Aibara, “Anti-tumor Activity in Mice of Orally Adminstered Polysaccha-ride from Kefir Grain,” Japanese Journal of Medecine Science and Biology, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1982, pp. 75-80.

[38]   E. Y. Park, H. Murakami, T. Mori and Y. Matsumura, “Effects of Protein and Peptide Addition on Lipid Oxidation in Powder Model System,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2005, pp. 137-144. doi:10.1021/jf040221e

[39]   W. H. Clair, P. Billings, J. Carew, C. Keller-McGandy, P. Newberne and A. R. Kennedy, “Suppression of DMH-Induced Carcinogenesis in Mice by Dietary Addition of the Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor,” Cancer Research, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1990, pp. 580-586.

[40]   M. Messina and S. Barnes, “The Role of Soy Products in Reducing the Risk of Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 83, No. 8, 1991, pp. 541-546. doi:10.1093/jnci/83.8.541

[41]   H. Kobayashi, M. Suzuki, N. Kanayama and T. Terao, “A Soybean Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion by Blocking Urokinase Upregulation,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2004, pp. 159-166. doi:10.1023/B:CLIN.0000024751.73174.c2

[42]   R. Xiao, T. M. Badger and F. A. Simmen, “Dietary Exposure to Soy or Whey Proteins Alters Colonic Global Gene Expression Profiles during Rat Colon Tumorigenesis,” Molecular Cancer, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2005, pp. 12-19. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-4-1

[43]   R. Hakkak, S. Korourian, M. J. Ronis, J. M. Johnston and T. M. Badger, “Soy Protein Isolate Consumption Protects against Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Tumors in Male Rats,” Cancer Letters, Vol. 166, No. 1, 2001, pp. 27-32. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00441-4

[44]   P. Vermont, S. Torres, O. Ben and D. Mejia, “Presence of Lunasin in Plasma of Men after Soy Protein Consumption,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1260-1266. doi:10.1021/jf803303k

[45]   E. Shintaro and O. Hajime, “Characterization of a Cellular Immunostimulating Peptide from a Soybean Protein Fraction Digested with Peptidase R,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2009, pp. 428-433. doi:10.3177/jnsv.55.428

[46]   O. S. Xiao, Z. Ying, C. Hui, G. Kai, C. Zhi, Z. Wei and L. Wei, “Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival,” The Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 302, No. 22, 2009, pp. 2437-2443. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1783

[47]   T. Tsuruki, K. Takahata and M. Yoshikawa, “Anti-alopecia Mechanisms of Soymetide-4, an Immunostimulating Peptide Derived from Soy Conglycinin,” Peptides, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2005, pp. 707-11. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.010

[48]   F. T. Rapaport, T. Terashima, K. Tsukuda, K. Kono, T, Takayama and K. Malinowski, “Suppression of Lectin, Alloantigen, and Xenoantigen-Induced T-Cell Proliferation by Genistein,” Transplantation Proceedings, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1997, pp. 1261-1264. doi:10.1016/S0041-1345(96)00489-7

[49]   M. Kogiso, T. Sakai and S. Yamamoto, “Genistein Suppresses Antigen Specific Immune Responses through Competition with 17 β-Estradiol for Estrogen Receptors in Ovalbumin-Immunized BALB/c Mice,” Nutrition, Vol. 22, No. 7, 2006, pp. 802-809. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2006.04.003

[50]   S. Yellayi, A. Naaz and P. S. Cooke, “The Phytoestrogen Genistein Induces Thymic and Immune Changes: a Human Health Concern,” Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 99, No. 11, 2002, pp. 7616-7621. doi:10.1073/pnas.102650199

[51]   I. R. Record, R. Head and A. L. Tonkin, “Genistein Inhibits Growth of B16 Melanoma Cells in Vivo and in Vitro and Promotes Differentiation in Vitro,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 72, No. 5, 1997, pp. 860-864. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970904)72:5<860::AID-IJC24>3.0.CO;2-B

[52]   T. L. Guo, J. N. McCay and K. L. White, “Genistein Modulates Immune Responses and Increases Host Resistance to B16F10 Tumor in Adult Female B6CF1 Mice,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, No. 12, 2001, pp. 3251-3258.

[53]   E. Shintaro and O. Hajime, “Characterization of a Cellular Immunostimulating Peptide from a Soybean Protein Fraction Digested with Peptidase,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2009, pp. 428-433.

[54]   R. Zhang, Y. Li and W. Wang, “Enhancement of Immune Function in Mice Fed High Dose of Soy Daidzein,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1997, pp. 24-28. doi:10.1080/01635589709514597

[55]   D. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jang, S. M. Hong, J. E. Lee, S. R. Sung, H. R. Park et al., “Long-Term Consumption of Fermented Soybean-Derived Chungkookjang Enhances Insulinotropic Action unlike Soybeans in 90% Pancreatectomized Diabetic Rats,” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2007, pp. 44-52. doi:10.1007/s00394-006-0630-y

[56]   A. E. Butler, J. Janson, S. Bonner-Weir, R. Ritzel and R. A. Rizza, “Beta-Cell Deficit and Increased Beta-Cell Apoptosis in Humans with Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2003, pp. 102-110. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.1.102

[57]   S. B. Choi, J. S. Jang and S. Park, “Estrogen and Exercise may Enhance Beta-Cell Function and Mass via Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Induction in Ovariectomized Diabetic Rats,” Endocrinology, Vol. 146, No. 1, 2005, pp. 4786-4794. doi:10.1210/en.2004-1653

[58]   S. M. Potter, J. A. Baum, G. Teng and R. J. Stillman, “Soya Protein and Isoflavones: Their Effect on Blood Lipids and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, No. 6, 1998, pp. 1366-1377.

[59]   B. H. Arjmandi, R. Birnbaum and N. V. Goyal, “Bone- sparing Effect of Soya Protein in Ovarian Hormone-Deficient Rats is Related to Its Isoflavone Content,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, No. 6, 1998, pp. 1360-1365.

[60]   J. J. B. Anderson, S. C. Garner, W. W. Ambrose and T. Ohue, “Genistein and Bone: Studies in Rat Models and Bone Cell Lines. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soya in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease,” Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, No. S1, 1996, pp. 1375-1379.

[61]   S. D. Clarke, “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation of Gene Transcription: A Mechanism to Improve Energy Balance and Insulin Resistance,” Britain Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 83, No. 1, 2000, pp. 59-66. doi:10.1017/S0007114500000969

[62]   M. T. Velasquez and S. J. Bhathena, “Role of Dietary Soy Protein in Obesity,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007, pp. 72-82.

[63]   A. Naaz, S. Yellayi, M. A. Zakroczymski, D. Bunick, D. R. Doerge, D. B. Lubahn, W. G. Helferich and P. S. Cooke, “The Soy Isoflavone Genistein Decreases Adipose Deposition in Mice,” Endocrinology, Vol. 144, No. 8, 2003, pp. 3315-3320. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0076

[64]   R. P. Patel, B. Boersma, J. H. Crawford, N. Hogg, M. Kirk, B. Kalyanaraman, D. Parks, S. Barnes and V. Darley-Usmar, “Antioxidant Mechanisms of Isoflavones in Lipid Systems: Paradoxical Effects of Peroxyl Radical Scavenging,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 12, 2001, pp. 1570-1581. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00737-7