AS  Vol.6 No.7 , July 2015
Selection of Tolerant Lines to Salinity Derived from Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Vitro Culture
Abstract: The genetic variability is considered as the major principle of plant breeding for durum wheat. This variability can be induced in vitro by selection pressure exerted by stress factors such as salinity in order to regenerate the vitro plantlets tolerant. This study aims in the first step in the regeneration of plantlets tolerant to salinity from mature embryos culture derived from two Tunisian durum wheat varieties: improved (Razzek) and landrace (Jenah Khotifa (JK)) varieties. The tolerance evaluation to salt stress was applied in vitro (100 mmol&middotl-1 NaCl) and was based on various parameters. Our results showed that JK variety was distinguished by a stable response for all parameters tested: average weight of callus (368.1 mg for control and 307 mg under salt stress), callus regenerated percentage (36.6% for control and 35.7% under salt stress) and green shoots number/callus (17 for control and 17 under salt stress). This stability of response translates the adaptability of this variety to salinity. In order to fix regenerated JK plantlets in single generation and obtain HDs homozygous stable lines, in vitro gynogenesis technical is tested for this genotype. The Evaluation of gynogenetic capacity focused on about 1200 unfertilized ovaries of JK and was based on its ability to induction, differentiation, development of green shoots, and haploid plantlets regeneration. JK showed good tolerance to salinity and a relatively good response to gynogenesis.
Cite this paper: Ayed-Slama, O. , Ayed, S. and Slim-Amara, H. (2015) Selection of Tolerant Lines to Salinity Derived from Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Vitro Culture. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 699-706. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.67067.

[1]   Ahmadizadeh, M., Valizadeh, M., Shahbazi, H., Zaefizadeh, M. and Habibpor, M. (2011) Morphological Diversity and Interrelationships Traits in Durum Wheat Landraces under Normal Irrigation and Drought Stress Conditions. Advances in Environmental Biology, 5, 1934-1940.

[2]   Khayatnezhad, M., Zaeifizadeh, M., Gholamin, R. and Jamaati-e-somarin, Sh. (2010) Study of Genetic Diversity and Path Analysis for Yield in Durum Wheat Genotypes under Water and Dry Conditions. World Applied Sciences Journal, 9, 655-665.

[3]   Kiliç, H. and Yagbasanlar, T. (2010) The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Some Quality Traits of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 38, 164-170.

[4]   Zaman, B., Niazi, B.H., Athar, M. and Ahmad, M. (2005) Response of Wheat Plants to Sodium and Calcium Ion Interaction under Saline Environment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2, 7-12.

[5]   Mansouri, S., Kobaissi, A., Nziengui, H., Fakiri, M., Shakafandeh, A. and Sibi, M. (2005) Gynogenèse in vitro chez quelques variétés de blé dur du Maghreb et du Moyen Orient (Triticum durum L.) pour l’obtention de régénérants chlorophylliens, en condition de stress salins. Géo. Eco. Trop., 29, 77-88.

[6]   Soliman, H.I.A. and Hendawy, M.H. (2013) Selection for Drought Tolerance Genotypes in Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) under in Vitro Conditions. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14, 69-78.

[7]   Sibi, M. and Fakiri, M. (2000) Androgenèse et gynogenèse sources de vitrovariation et de tolerance à la salinité chez l’orge Hordeum vulgare. Sécheresse, 11,125-132.

[8]   Picard, E., Crambes, E. and Mihamou-Ziyyat, A. (1994) L’haplodiploÏdisation: Un outil multi-usage pour la génétique et l’amélioration des céréales. Quel avenir pour l’amélioration des plantes? Ed: AUPELF-UREF. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris, 355-369.

[9]   Cistué, L., Soriano, M., Castillo, A.M., Vallés, M.P., Sanz, J.M. and Echàvarri, B. (2005) Production of Doubled Haploids in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) through Isolated Microspore Culture. Plant Cell Reports, 25, 257-264.

[10]   Slama-Ayed, O. and Slim-Amara, H. (2007) Production of Doubled Haploids in Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) through Culture of Unpollinated Ovaries. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 91, 125-133.

[11]   Ayed, S., Slama-Ayed, O. and Slim-Amara, H. (2011) Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Nitrate Silver on the Efficiency of Haploid Production in Durum Wheat X Maize Crosses. International Journal of Plant Breeding, 5, 101-105.

[12]   Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. (1962) A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bioassays with Tobacco Tissue Cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473-497.

[13]   Sears, R. and Deckard, G. (1982) Tissue Culture Variability in Wheat: CALLUS Induction and Plant Regeneration from Triticale Embryos. Corp Science, 22, 546-550.

[14]   Sibi, M. and Fakiri, M. (1994) Gynogenèse chez des génotypes marocains d’orge (Hordeum vulgare). In: AUPELFUREF, Ed., Quel avenir pour l’amélioration des plantes? John Libbey Eurotext, Paris, 337-344.

[15]   Mdarhri-Alaoui, M., Saidi, N., Chlayah, A. and Chlayah, H. (1998) Obtention par gynogenèse in vitro de plantes haploides chlorophyliennes chez le blé dur. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences-Series III-Sciences de la Vie, 321, 25-30.

[16]   Sibi, M., Kobaissi, A. and Shakafandeh, A. (2001) Green Haploid Plants from Unpollinated Ovary Culture in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Euphytica, 122, 351-359.

[17]   Oudija, F., Ismaili, M. and Amsa, M. (2002) Effet de la concentration en NaCl sur l’embryogenèse somatique et sur les capacités de régénération chez le blé. African Crop Science Journal, 10, 211-219.

[18]   Barakat, M.N. and Abdel-Latif, T.H. (1996) In Vitro Selection of Wheat Callus Tolerant to High Levels of Salt and Plant Regeneration. Euphytica, 91, 127-140.

[19]   Arzani, A. and Mirodjagh, S.S. (1999) Response of Durum Wheat Cultivars to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and in Vitro Salt Stress. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 58, 67-72.

[20]   Karmous, C. (2001) Etude de quelques critères physiologiques et biochimiques de sélection pour la tolérance à la salinité chez le blé dur: Approche intégrative. Master Dissertation, National Agronomical Institute of Tunisia.

[21]   Zair, I., Chlyah, A., Sabounji, K., Tittahsen, M. and Chlyah, H. (2003) Salt Tolerance Improvement in Some Wheat Cultivars after Application of in Vitro Selection Pressure. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 73, 237-244.

[22]   Dogramaci-Altunetpe, M., Peterson, T.S. and Jauhar, P.P. (2001) Anther Culture Derived Regenerants of Durum Wheat and Their Cytological Characterization. The Journal of Heredity, 92, 56-64.

[23]   De Buyser, J., Touraine, P., Jaiti, F. and Picard, E. (2002) Haplodiploidisation par culture de microspores isolées de blé in vitro. Biotechnologies végétales: Techniques de laboratoire. Livre Robert Haicour, Tec et Doc Montréal, AUF, 257-273.