MRC  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2015
Effect of Potassium on Sol-Gel Cerium and Lanthanum Oxide Catalysis for Soot Combustion
Abstract: The catalytic activity in the soot combustion is reported for a series of potassium-promoter alumina supported catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method to be used in the catalytic combustion of soot. The studied systems correspond to CeO2-Al2O3 and La2O3-Al2O3 with charges of 3 and 5 wt% of CeO2 and La2O3. Potassium impregnation is performed to reach 3 atoms of K per nm2 of the mixed oxide. The effect of the potassium incorporation increases its reducibility, decreases the surface area and forms a new type of oxygen that is stronger than the oxygen in mixed oxides with similar chemical nature. The existence of potassium oxides, K2O and oxygen responsible for the vacancies and/or lattice defects (O2−) are related to good catalytic activity. Additionally, the presence of alkali affects the structural and textural characteristics of the catalyst, promoting the catalytic activity in soot combustion.
Cite this paper: Salinas, D. , Pecchi, G. , Rodríguez, V. and Fierro, J. (2015) Effect of Potassium on Sol-Gel Cerium and Lanthanum Oxide Catalysis for Soot Combustion. Modern Research in Catalysis, 4, 68-77. doi: 10.4236/mrc.2015.43009.

[1]   Müller, J.O., Su, D., Jentoft, R.E., Wild, U. and Schlögl, R. (2006) Diesel Engine Exhaust Emission: Oxidative Behavior and Microstructure of Black Smoke Soot Particulate. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 1231-1236.

[2]   Pecchi, G., Reyes, P., López, T. and Gómez, R. (2004) Pd-CeO2 and Pd-La2O3/Alumina-Supported Catalysts: Their Effect on the Catalytic Combustion of Methane. Journal of Non Crystalline Solids, 345&346, 624-627.

[3]   Dai, F., Zhang, Y., Meng, M., Zhang, J., Zheng, L. and Hu, T. (2014) Enhanced Soot Combustion over Partially Substituted Hydrotalcite-Drived Mixed Oxide Catalysts CoMgAlLaO. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 393, 68-74.

[4]   Thevenin, P., Alcalde, A., Pettersson, L., Järas, S. and Fierro, J.L.G. (2003) Catalytic Combustion Of Methane over Cerium-Doped Palladium Catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 215, 78-86.

[5]   Ferrandon, M., Farrad, B., Björnbom, E., Klingstedt, F., Neyestanaki, A.K., Karhu, H. and Väyrynen, I.J. (2001) Copper Oxide—Platinum/Alumina Catalysts for Volatile Organic Compound and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation: Synergetic Effect of Cerium and Lanthanum. Journal of Catalysis, 202, 354-366.

[6]   Kundakovic, Lj. and Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. (1998) Cu- and Ag-Modified Cerium Oxide Catalysts for Methane Oxidation. Journal of Catalysis, 179, 203-221.

[7]   Pecchi, G., Cabrera, B., Buljan, A., Delgado, E.J., Gordon, A.L. and Jimenez, R. (2013) Catalytic Oxidation of Soot over Alkaline Niobates. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 551, 255-261.

[8]   Pecchi, G., Reyes, P., Jiliberto, M.G., López, T. and Fierro, J.L.G. (2006) Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate over Ceria-Promoted Platinum Supported on Al2O3 and ZrO2 Catalysts. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 37, 169-174.

[9]   Pecchi, G., Cabrera, B., Delgado, E.J., García, X. and Jimenez, R. (2013) Activity of KNbO3 as Catalyst for Soot Combustion: Effect of the Preparation Method. Applied Catalysis A: General, 453, 341-348.

[10]   Jimenez, R., García, X. and Gordon, A.L. (2010) About the Active Phases of KNO 3 /MgO for Catalytic Soot Combustion. Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 99, 281-287.

[11]   Lox, E.S., Engler, B.H. and Koberstein, E. (1991) Diesel Emission Control. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 71, 291-321.

[12]   Ahlstrom, A.F. and Odenbrand, C.U.I. (1990) Combustion of Soot Deposits from Diesel Engines on Mixed Oxides of Vanadium Pentoxide and Cupric Oxide. Applied Catalysis, 60, 157-172.

[13]   Fino, D., Fino, P., Saracco, G. and Specchia, V. (2003) Studies on Kinetics and Reactions Mechanism of La2-xKxCu1-yVyO4 Layered Perovskites for the Combined Removal of Diesel Particulate and NOx. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 43, 243-259.

[14]   Kureti, S., Weisweiler, W. and Hizbullah, K. (2003) Simultaneous Conversion of Nitrogen Oxides and Soot into Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide over Iron Containing Oxide Catalysts in Diesel Exhaust Gas. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 43, 281-291.

[15]   Rahayu, S., Monceaux, W.L., Taouk, B. and Courtine, P. (1995) Catalytic Combustion of Diesel Soot on Perovskite Type Oxides. Studies in Surface Science in Catalysis, 96, 563-574.

[16]   Teraoka, Y., Nakano, K., Shangguan, W. and Kagawa, S. (1996) Simultaneous Catalytic Removal of Nitrogen Oxides and Diesel Soot Particulate over Perovskite-Related Oxides. Catalysis Today, 27, 107-113.

[17]   Fino, D., Russo, N., Saracco, G. and Specchia, V. (2003) The Role of Suprafacial Oxygen in Some Perovskites for the Catalytic Combustion of Soot. Journal of Catalysis, 217, 367-375.

[18]   Shangguan, W., Teraoka, Y. and Kagawa, S. (1995) Effect of Oxide Composition of Spinel Type Cooper Chromites on the Catalytic Activity for the Simultaneous Removal NOx and Soot Particulate. Reports of the Faculty of Engineering, Nagasaki University, 25, 241-248.

[19]   Uchisawa, J.O., Obuchi, A., Zhao, Z. and Kushiyama, S. (1998) Carbon Oxidation with Platinum Supported Catalysts. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 18, L183-L187.

[20]   Oi-Uchisawa, J., Obuchi, A., Enomoto, R., Xu, J., Nanba, T. and Kushiyama, S. (2001) Oxidation of Carbon Black over Various Pt/MOx/SiC Catalysts. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 32, 257-268.

[21]   Gross, M.S., Ulla, M.A. and Querini, C.A. (2009) Catalytic Oxidation of Diesel Soot: New Characterization and Kinetic Evidence Related to the Reaction Mechanism on K/CeO2 Catalyst. Applied Catalysis A: General, 360, 81-88.

[22]   Zhang, Z., Mou, Z., Yu, P., Zhang, Y. and Ni, X. (2007) Diesel Soot Combustion on Potassium Promoted Hydrotalcite-Based Mixed Oxide Catalysts. Catalysis Communications, 8, 1621-1624.

[23]   Jimenez, R., García, X., Cellier, C., Ruiz, P. and Gordon, A.L. (2006) Soot Combustion with K/MgO as Catalyst. Applied Catalysis A: General, 297, 125-134.

[24]   Jimenez, R., Garcia, X., Lopez, T. and Gordon, A.L. (2008) Catalytic Combustion of Soot. Effects of Added Alkali Metals on CaO-MgO Physical Mixtures. Fuel Processing Technology, 89, 1160-1168.

[25]   Liu, J., Zhao, Z., Chen, Y.S., Xu, C.M., Duan, A.J. and Jiang, G.Y. (2011) Different Valent Ions-Doped Cerium Oxides and Their Catalytic Performances for Soot Oxidation. Catalysis Today, 175, 117-123.

[26]   Li, Y., Gao, F., Kovarik, L., Peden, C.H.E. and Wang, Y. (2014) Effects of CeO2 Support Facets on VOx/CeO2 Catalysts in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol. Journal of Catalysis, 315, 15-24.

[27]   Campbell, C.T. and Peden, C.H.F. (2005) CHEMISTRY: Oxygen Vacancies and Catalysis on Ceria Surfaces. Science, 309, 713-714.

[28]   Sawyer, R., Nesbitt, H.W. and Secco, R.A. (2012) High Resolution X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Study of K2O-SiO2 Glasses: Evidence for Three Types of O and at Least Two Types of Si. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 358, 290-302.

[29]   Pecchi, G., Reyes, P., Zamora, R., López, T. and Gómez, R. (2005) Effect of the Promoter and Support on the Catalytic Activity of PdCeO2- Supported Catalysts for CH4 Combustion. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 80, 268-272.

[30]   Peralta, M.A., Milt, V.G., Cornaglia, L.M. and Querini, C.A. (2006) Stability of Ba,K/CeO2 Catalyst during Diesel Soot Combustion: Effect of Temperature, Water, and Sulfur Dioxide. Journal of Catalysis, 242, 118-130.

[31]   Mazumber, J. and de Lasa, H.I. (2014) Ni Catalysts for Steam Gasification of Biomass: Effect of La2O3 Loading. Catalysis Today, 237, 100-110.

[32]   Dupin, J.C., Gonbeau, D., Vinatier, P. and Levasseur, A. (2000) Systematic XPS Studies of Metal Oxides, Hydroxides and Peroxides. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2, 1319-1324.

[33]   Merino, N.A., Barbero, B.P., Grange, P. and Cadús, L.E. (2005) LaCaCoO Perovskite-Type Oxides: Preparation, Characterisation, Stability, and Catalytic Potentiality for the Total Oxidation of Propane. Journal of Catalysis, 231, 232-244.

[34]   Zhao, Z., Yang, X. and Wu, Y. (1996) Comparative Study of Nickel-Based Perovskite-Like Mixed Oxide Catalysts for Direct Decomposition of NO. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 8, 281-297.

[35]   Pecchi, G., Reyes, P., Zamora, R., Campos, C., Cadus, L.E. and Barbero, B. (2008) Effect of the Preparation Method on the Catalytic Activity of La1-xCaxFeO3 Perovskite-Type Oxides. Catalysis Today, 133-135, 420-427.

[36]   Praveen, B.V.S., Cho, B.J., Park, J.G. and Ramanathan, S. (2015) Effect of La Doping of Ceria Abrasives for STI CMP. Materials Science Processing, 33, 161-168.

[37]   Fleming, P., Ramirez, S., Holmes, J.D. and Morris, M.A. (2011) An XPS Study of the Oxidation of Reduced Ceria-Lanthana Nanocrystals. Chemical Physics Letters, 509, 51-57.

[38]   Sunding, M.F., Hadidi, K., Diplas, S., Lovvik, O.M., Norby, T.E. and Gunnas, A.E. (2011) XPS Characterisation of in Situ Treated Lanthanum Oxide and Hydroxide Using Tailored Charge Referencing and Peak Fitting Procedures. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 184, 399-409.

[39]   Haack, L.P., de Vries, J.E., Otto, K. and Chattha, M.S. (1992) Characterization of Lanthanum-Modified γ-Alumina by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Carbon Dioxide Absorption. Applied Catalysis A: General, 82, 199-214.

[40]   Pecchi, G., Dinamarca, R., Campos, C.M., García, X., Jimenez, R. and Fierro, J.L.G. (2014) Soot Oxidation on Silver-Substituted LaMn0.9Co0.1O3 Perovskites. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 53, 10090-10096.