WJCS  Vol.5 No.7 , July 2015
A Surgical Perspective on Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Tethering or Prolapse? Going Back to Papillary Muscles Anatomy. What the Surgeons Really Need to Know
ABSTRACT
More than one third of patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) present a valve prolapse whose mechanism is subtended by a papillary injury. The recent literature is pointing at a regional ventricular injury or wall motion abnormality rather than a global LV dysfunction as responsible for IMR and the presence of localized valve prolapse related to papillary dysfunction is additionally supporting this idea. Leaflet tethering or prolapse in these patients is subtended by lesion of the papillary muscle (PM) per se rather than its dysfunction secondary to regional and global ventricle enlargement. Identification of this type of lesion is difficult and can be overlooked. Morphological characteristics and anatomical variability of the papillary muscles determine their different susceptibility ischemic damage and dysfunction. Pioneering work in mitral anatomy shows a range of morphological diversity of PM anatomy and leads to an anatomical classification with important implications in IMR surgery. New methods of investigation, as multidetector computed tomography or magnetic resonance provide a very accurate and proper identification of the morphological pattern of the subvalvular apparatus, which is crucial for a long-lasting and successful surgical correction. The involvement of PM in the pathophysiology of IMR not only in terms of their functional anomaly, but also of their effective anatomical aspects and characteristics is increasingly emerging. The modern advancements of imaging techniques can guide the preoperative surgical planning and the surgeon needs to be aware of morphological features of the subvalvular apparatus and combine these findings with echographic functional parameters before embarking in complex mitral repairs.

Cite this paper
Nappi, F. , Spadaccio, C. and Acar, C. (2015) A Surgical Perspective on Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Tethering or Prolapse? Going Back to Papillary Muscles Anatomy. What the Surgeons Really Need to Know. World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 5, 63-69. doi: 10.4236/wjcs.2015.57011.
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