MSCE  Vol.3 No.7 , July 2015
Epoxy Thermosets with Self-Healing Ability

A hybrid epoxy resin with intrinsic self healing properties has been prepared from a bifunctional Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The obtained network, based on conventional Diglycidyl ether of BisphenolA (DGEBA) and DA epoxy, leads to simultaneous tuning of physical-chemical properties and healing capability. The self-repairing behavior has been verified by means of scratch recovery observation and micromechanical analysis. A satisfactory morphological and mechanical recovery has been achieved by thermal stimulus, leading to very promising application in the field of adhesives and structural applications.

Cite this paper
Amendola, E. , Iacono, S. , Pastore, A. , Curcio, M. and Iadonisi, A. (2015) Epoxy Thermosets with Self-Healing Ability. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 3, 162-167. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.37022.
[1]   White, S.R., Sottos, N.R., Geubelle, P.H., Moore, J.S., Kessler, M.R., Sriram, S.R., Brown, E.R. and Viswanathan, S. (2001) Autonomic Healing of Polymer Composites. Nature, 409, 794-797.

[2]   Chen, X., Dam, M.A., Ono, K., Mal, A., Shen, H., Nutt, S.R., Sheran, K. and Wudl, F. (2002) A Thermally Re- Mendable Cross-Linked Po-lymeric Material. Science, 295, 1698-1702.

[3]   Liu, Y.-L., Hsieh, C.-Y. and Chen, Y.-W. (2006) Thermally Reversible Cross-Linked Polyamides and Thermo-Res- ponsive Gels by Means of Diels-Alder Reaction. Polymer, 47, 2581-2586.

[4]   Gaina, C., Ursache, O. and Gaina, V. (2011) ReMendable Polyure-thanes. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 50, 712-718.

[5]   Toncelli, C., De Reus, D.C., Picchioni, F. and Broekhuis, A.A. (2012) Properties of Reversible Diels-Alder Furan/ Maleimide Polymer Networks as Function of Crosslink Density. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 213, 157- 165.

[6]   Gaina, C., Ursache, O., Gaina, V. and Varganici, C.D. (2013) Thermally Reversible Cross-Linked Poly(Ether-Ure-thane)s. Express Polymer Letters, 7, 636-650.

[7]   Barthel, M.J., Rudolph, T., Teichler, A., Paulus, R.M., Vitz, J., Hoeppener, S., Hager, M.D., Schacher, F.H. and Schubert, U.S. (2013) Self-Healing Materials via Reversible Crosslinking of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Block-Poly(Furfuryl Glycidyl Ether) (PEO-b-PFGE) Block Copolymer Films. Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 4921-4932.

[8]   Kavitha, A.A. and Singha, N.K. (2010) Smart “All Acrylate” ABA Triblock Copolymer Bearing Reactive Functionality via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP): Demonstration of a “Click Reaction” in Thermoreversible Property. Macromolecules, 43, 3193-3205.

[9]   Postiglione, G., Turri, S. and Levi, M. (2015) Effect of the Plasticizer on the Self-Healing Properties of a Polymer Coating Based on the Thermoreversible Diels-Alder Reaction. Progress in Organic Coatings, 78, 526-531.

[10]   Peterson, A.M., Jensen, R.E. and Palmese, G.R. (2010) Room-Temperature Healing of a Thermosetting Polymer Using the Diels-Alder Reaction. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2, 1141-1149.

[11]   Pratama, P.A., Sharifi, M., Peterson, A.M. and Palmese, G.R. (2013) Room Temperature Self-Healing Thermoset Based on the Diels-Alder Reaction. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 5, 12425-12431.

[12]   Pratama, P.A., Peterson, A.M. and Palmese, G.R. (2013) The Role of Maleimide Structure in the Healing of Furan- Functionalized Epoxy-Amine Thermosets. Polymer Chemistry, 4, 5000-5006.

[13]   Zhang, W., Duchet, J. and Gérard, J.F. (2014) Self-Healable Interfaces Based on Thermo-Reversible Diels-Alder Reactions in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 430, 61-68.

[14]   Tian, Q., Yuan, Y.C., Rong, M.Z. and Zhang, M.Q. (2009) A Thermally Remendable Epoxy Resin. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 19, 1289-1296.

[15]   Scheltjens, G., Brancert, J., De Graeve, I., Van Mele, B., Terryn, H. and Van Assche, G. (2011) Self-Healing Property Characterization of Reversible Thermoset Coatings. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 105, 805-809.

[16]   Scheltjens, G., Diaz, M.M., Brancart, J., Van Assche, G. and Van Mele, B. (2013) A Self-Healing Polymer Network Based on Reversible Covalent Bonding. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 73, 413-420.

[17]   Brancart, J., Scheltjens, G., Muselle, T., Van Mele, B., Terryn, H. and Van Assche, G. (2014) Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Study of Self-Healing Coatings Based on Reversible Polymer Network Systems. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 25, 40-46.

[18]   de Almeida, C.G., Reis, S.G., de Almeida, A.M., Diniz, C.G., da Silva, V.L. and le Hyaric, M. (2011) Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Amino Alcohols. Chemical Biology Drug Design, 78, 876-880.

[19]   Oliver, W.C. and Pharr, G.M. (1992) An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic-Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments. Journal of Materials Research, 7, 1564-1583.

[20]   Odian, G. (2004) Principles of Polymerization. 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester.

[21]   Heo, Y. and Sodano, H.A. (2014) Self-Healing Polyurethanes with Shape Recovery. Advanced Functional Materials, 24, 5261-5268.

[22]   Zheng, S. and Ashcroft, I.A. (2005) A Depth Sensing Indentation Study of the Hardness and Modulus of Adhesives. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 25, 67-76.