OJE  Vol.5 No.7 , July 2015
The Contribution of Tanzanian National Parks in Controlling the Vectors of Sleeping Sickness
Abstract: This paper summarises efforts to control Sleeping sickness [Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT)] by Tsetse flies and Trypanosomiaisis (T & T) control for the 7 consecutive years although started a decade ago in Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA). These efforts are critical for curbing HAT incidences and HAT epidemics. HAT cases have had profound negative impacts on human health, affecting local residents and international travel as well as tourism industry resulting into human and animal health burden and reduction in tourism income. Understanding the current efforts is essential in the proper planning and decision making on developing effective control strategy against T & T control. In this paper, we summarize the recent efforts in the control of T & T in National Parks and discuss the constraints faced. The information will enable TANAPA and other concerned authorities to make informed decision on optimal ways of controlling HAT in National Parks. The results show that much control efforts have so far concentrated in Serengeti, Ruaha, Tarangire and Katavi National Parks where tsetse fly challenges are high. A total 21,143 (average 3020) Insecticide Treated Targets (ITT) were deployed in different areas in the parks and 82,899 (average 20,725) cars entering these parks were sprayed from 2007/2008 to 2014/2015 and 2007/2008 to 2010/2011 respectively. Deployed ITTs lead to a drastic reduction of FTDs of the two dominant tsetse species to 1.3 and 1.4 of G. swynnertoni and G. pallidipes respectively, and the decline was significant at P = 0.011. The major challenges faced include tsetse re-invasion in controlled areas; resurgence of HAT cases when control efforts are relaxed, ITT maintenance and inadequate health education programs. The control strategy should be continuous and scaled up as failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control will increase the risk of new epidemic that would impede tourism development.
Cite this paper: Muse, E. , Lejora, I. , Wakibara, J. , Kilewo, M. , Chuma, I. , Kihwele, E. , Samwel, D. , Mtui, A. , Sindato, C. and Malele, I. (2015) The Contribution of Tanzanian National Parks in Controlling the Vectors of Sleeping Sickness. Open Journal of Ecology, 5, 306-314. doi: 10.4236/oje.2015.57025.

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