FNS  Vol.6 No.10 , July 2015
Quantitative Estimation of Hydrogen Cyanide in Fresh and Cooked Tuber Parenchyma (Pulp) of Three Cultivars of Sweet Cassava Cultivars Grown in Some Parts of Benue State, Nigeria
Abstract: The amount of cyanide in fresh and cooked tuber parenchyma (pulp) of three cultivars of sweet cassava from two local government areas (LGA) of Benue state was studied. Cassava tubers were collected and carefully peeled to obtain the pulp. The fresh and boiled samples were adequately processed and treated with ninhydrin, Na2CO3 and NaOH and the absorbance of the reaction product measured using UV-Visible spectrometer after construction of a calibration graph using standard cyanide solutions. The amount of cyanide in the fresh pulp varied with differences in cultivars ranging from White Dan-Warri Cultivar: (19.87 to 28.81) mg/kg; Obasanjo cultivar: (17.23 to 28.81) mg/kg and Red Dan-Warri Cultivar (8.23 to 19.31) mg/kg. Also, the cyanide content of cultivars from Oju LGA was generally higher than that of the cultivars from Gwer-east LGA. Cyanide content varied with the period of the day harvested in the order: Afternoon > Evening > Morning for all cultivars. Furthermore, cooking greatly reduced the cyanide content of all the sweet cassava cultivars but boiling was more effective than roasting with the cyanide removal increasing with increase in cooking time. The cyanide content of the tuber parenchyma of the sweet cassava cultivars was very low (<30 mg/kg) which is in agreement with reported values for sweet cassava. However, cooking at a reasonable time interval will further reduce their cyanide levels to further safe limits.
Cite this paper: Ubwa, S. , Adoga, S. , Tyohemba, R. and Shambe, T. (2015) Quantitative Estimation of Hydrogen Cyanide in Fresh and Cooked Tuber Parenchyma (Pulp) of Three Cultivars of Sweet Cassava Cultivars Grown in Some Parts of Benue State, Nigeria. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 836-844. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.610087.

[1]   Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (2005) Cyanogenic Glycosides in Cassava and Bamboo Shoots: A Human Health Risk Assessment. Technical Report Series No. 28.

[2]   Nweke, F.I., Spencer, D.S.C. and Lynam, J.K. (2001) The Cassava Transformation: Africa’s Best Kept Secret. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing.

[3]   International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2000) The World Cassava Economy: Facts and Outlook. Rome. 31 pp.

[4]   Nweke, F. (2004) New Challenges in the Cassava Transformation in Nigeria and Ghana. EPTD Discussion Paper No. 118. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC.

[5]   Jogensen, K., Bak, S., Busk, P.K., Sorensen, C., Olsen, C.K., Puonti-Kaerlas, J. and Moller, B.L. (2005) Cassava Plant with a Depleted Cyanogenic Glucoside Content in Leaves and Tubers. Distribution of Cyanogenic Glucosides, Their Sites of Synthesis and Transport, and Blockage of the Biosynthesis by RNA Interferences Technology. Plant Physiology, 139, 363-374.

[6]   White, W.L.B., Arias-Garzon, D.I., McMahon, J.M. and Sayre, R.T. (1998) The Role of Hydronitrile Lyase in Root Cyanide Production. Plant Physiology, 116, 1219-1225.

[7]   McMahon, J., White, W. and Sayre, R.T. (1995) Cyanogenesis in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Journal of Experimental Botany, 46, 731-741.

[8]   Oluwale, O.S.A., Onabolu, A.O., Link, H. and Roseling, H. (2000) Persistence of Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy in a Nigerian Community. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 69, 96-101.

[9]   Rosling, H., Mlingi, N., Tylleskar, T. and Babea, M. (1993) Casual Mechanisms behind Human Diseases Induced by Cyanide Exposure from Cassava. In: Roca, W. and Thro, A., Eds., Proceedings of the First International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network, Centro International de Agricultura Tropica, Cali, 366-375.

[10]   Osuntokun, B.O. (1981) Cassava Diet, Chronic Cyanide Intoxication and Neuropathy in Nigerian Africans. World Reviews in Nutrition and Diet, 36, 141-827.

[11]   Bokanga, M., Ekanayake, I.J., Dixon, A.G., Cyanogenic, O. and Porto, M.C.M. (1994) Genotype-Environment Interactions for Potential in Cassava. Acta Horticulturae, 375, 131-139.

[12]   Surleva, A., Zahraria, M., Ion, L., Gradinaru, R.V., Drochioiu, G. and Mangalagiu, I. (2013) Ninhydrin-Based Spectrophotometric Assays of Trace Cyanide. Acta Chemica IASA, 21, 57-70.

[13]   Burns, A., Gleadow, R., Cliff, J., Zacarias, A. and Cavagnaro, T. (2010) Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World. Sustainability, 2, 3572-3607.

[14]   Jansz, E.R. and Uluwaduge, D.I. (1997) Biochemical Aspects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with Special Emphasis on Cyanogenic Glucosides—A Review. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, 25, 1-24.

[15]   Burns, A.E., Gleadow, R.M. and Zacarias, A.M. (2012) Variations in the Chemical Composition of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves and Roots as Affected by Genotypic and Environmental Variation. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 60, 4946-4956.

[16]   FAO/WHO (1995) Codex Standards for Edible Cassava Flour. In: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Standards 176-1989, Codex Alimentarius Commission; Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

[17]   Ezeigbo, O.R., Ukpabi, C.F., Ike-Amadi, C.A. and Ekkaiko, M.U. (2015) Determination of Starch and Cyanide Content of Different Species of Fresh Cassava Tuber in Abia State, Nigeria. British Biotechnology Journal, 6, 10-15.

[18]   Asegbeloyin, J.N. and Onyimonyi, A.E. (2007) The Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Residual Cyanide of “Garri”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6, 163-166.

[19]   Anhwange, B.A., Asemave, K., Ikyenge, B.A. and Oklo, D.A. (2011) Hydrogen Cyanide Content of Manihot utilissima, Colocasia esculenta, Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea domemtorum Tubers Found in Benue State. International Journal of Chemistry, 3, 69-71.

[20]   Dolodolotawake, U. and Aalbersberg, W.G.L. (2011) Cyanide Content of Cassava and Some of Its Products in Some South Pacific Island Countries. Professional and Technical Reports, University of South Pacific (USP) Electronic Research Repository.

[21]   Colorado State University Extension (2003) Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology of White Clover (Trifolium repens). Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Web Manager.

[22]   MERG, Mining Environment Research Group (2001) Cyanide—The Facts. Geoscience Information and Sales, Yukon Geological Survey, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Yukon.

[23]   The MERCK Veterinary Manual (2015) Overview of Cyanide Poisoning. Merck Sharp and Dohme Corp; a Subsidiary of Merck and Co., Inc., White House Station.

[24]   Ohio State University (2003) Researchers Get to the Root of Cassava’s Cyanide-Producing Abilities.

[25]   Hidayat, A., Zuraida, N. and Hanarida, I. ((2002) The Cyanogenic Potential of Roots and Leaves of Ninety Nine Cassava Cultivars. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, 3, 25-32.

[26]   Ngudi, D.D., Kuo, Y.H. and Lambein, F. (2003) Cassava Cyanogens and Free Amino Acids in Raw and Cooked Leaves. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 41, 1193-1197.

[27]   FRI, Food Research Institute (2012) Work Package 4: Ensuring the Safety and Quality of Processed Cassava Products in Market-Oriented Production: Report on the Review of Previous Experiences and Works on Cyanogenic Glycosides in Cassava Processing. CSIR-FRI/NRI Cassava Gmarket Project, Council for Scientific and Industrial, Ghana.

[28]   Cock, J.H. (1982) Cassava: A Basic Energy Source in the Tropics. Science, 218, 755-762.