PSYCH  Vol.6 No.9 , July 2015
Effects of Soup Intake for Fourteen Days on the Mood and the Difference in Cortisol of Awakening and Evening in the Clerical Employees: An Effectiveness Study Trial
ABSTRACT
In this study, an investigation based on an effectiveness study trial without special limitations was carried out regarding how 14 days’ continuous soup intake would change the mood of the participants and their salivary cortisol levels between awakening and evening. The participants consisted of 16 healthy workers who agreed to participate in the experiment. The participants led their normal daily lives without consuming soup for the first 14 days (controlled condition), and then consumed their chosen soup once a day, at approximately 3 p.m., for the next 14 days (soup condition). Their salivary cortisol levels were measured when they woke up in the morning (awakening) and at 5 p.m. on the last day of each condition, while their mood was evaluated by questionnaire at 5 p.m. every day. The irritation-anger score of the soup condition was significantly lower than that of the controlled condition, and the difference in the salivary cortisol level between awakening and evening in the soup condition was significantly higher compared with the controlled condition. As a result, this study suggests that continuous soup intake under conditions of free choice in the afternoon at the workplace may be effective in relieving stress of worker’s body and mind.

Cite this paper
Yajima, J. , Tsuda, A. , Okamura, H. , Urata, H. , Matsubara, A. , Mihara, K. , Isomura, T. , Takeda, K. and Midoh, N. (2015) Effects of Soup Intake for Fourteen Days on the Mood and the Difference in Cortisol of Awakening and Evening in the Clerical Employees: An Effectiveness Study Trial. Psychology, 6, 1108-1113. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.69108.
References
[1]   Christensen, L., & Brooks, A. (2006). Changing Food Preference as a Function of Mood. The Journal of Psychology, 140, 293-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.140.4.293-306

[2]   Hajat, A., Diez-Roux, A., Franklin, T. G., Seeman, T., Shrager, S., Ranjit, N., Castro, C., Watson, K., Sanchez, B., & Kirschbaum, C. (2010). Socioeconomic and Race/Ethnic Differences in Daily Salivary Cortisol Profiles: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 932-943.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.12.009

[3]   Holland, J. M., Thompson, L. W., Cucciare, M. A., Tsuda, A., Okamura, H., Spiegel, D., Rasgon, N. L., & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2011). Cortisol Outcomes among Caucasian and Latina/Hispanic Women Caring for a Family Member with Dementia: A Preliminary Examination of Psychosocial Predictors and Effects of a Psychoeducational Intervention. Stress and Health, 27, 334-346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.1375

[4]   Ishizaki, T., Hisano, M., Umeki, Y., Kuroda, M., & Hayabuchi, H. (2005). The Evaluation of Skipjack Soup Stock Consumption on Mood Status Using Questionnaire (POMS). Journal of the Integrated Study of Dietary Habits, 16, 39-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2740/jisdh.16.39

[5]   Karita, K., Harada, M., Yoshida, M., & Kokaze, A. (2012). Factors Associated with Dietary Habits and Mood States Affecting Taste Sensitivity in Japanese College Women. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 58, 360-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.58.360

[6]   Liao, J., Brunner, E. J., & Kumari, M. (2013). Is There an Association Between Work Stress and Diurnal Cortisol Patterns? Findings from the Whitehall II Study. PLoS One, 8, e81020.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081020

[7]   Midoh, N. (2011). The Health Value of a Soup. In F. Hachiuma, I. Kawasaki, T. Uemura, & K. Yamaguchi (Eds.), A Guide to Soup (Revised Edition) (pp. 78-89). Tokyo: Japan Food Journal Co., Ltd.

[8]   Midoh, N., & Noguchi, T. (2009).Effect of Chicken Soup Intake on Mood States and Peripheral Blood Flow in Humans. Journal of Health Science, 55, 56-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/jhs.55.56

[9]   Miller, G. E., Chen, E. & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it Goes up, Must It Come Down? Chronic Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis in Humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 25-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.25

[10]   Nagai, N., Wakisaka, S., Takagi, A., Yamaguchi, M., & Moritani, T. (2012). Effect of Spice-Containing Soup on Gastric Motility and Appetite Sensations. The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 70, 17-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.70.17

[11]   Nagai, N., Yamamoto, Y., Midoh, N., Isomura, T., Wakisaka, S., & Moritani, T. (2010). Evaluation of the Transient Sense of Relief Following Soup Intake, and Related Psychological and Physiological Factors. Journal of Japan Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 63, 279-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4327/jsnfs.63.279

[12]   Nakagawa, M., & Inui, T. (1997). Changes in Taste Perception under Mental and Physical Stress. Japanese Journal of Sensory Evaluation, 1, 18-23.

[13]   Singal, A. G., Higgins, P. D. R., & Waljee, A. K. (2014). A Primer on Effectiveness and Efficacy Trials. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, 5, e45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ctg.2013.13

[14]   Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (2005). Positive Affect and Biological Function in Everyday Life. Neurobiology of Aging, 26, 108-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.08.016

[15]   Tatano, M., Oshima, T., & Aso, Y. (2007). The Development of the Competency to Choose the Meal in University Students. Bulletin on Center for Research on School Education and Counseling, Shimane University, 6, 63-76.

[16]   Terasaki, M., Kishimoto, Y., & Koga, A. (1992). Construction of a Multiple Mood Scale. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 62, 350-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.4992/jjpsy.62.350

[17]   Yannakoulia, M., Panagiotakos, D. B., Pitsavos, C., Tsetsekou, E., Fappa, E., Papageorgiou, C., & Stefanadis, C. (2008). Eating Habits in Relations to Anxiety Symptoms among Apparently Healthy Adults. A Pattern Analysis from the ATTICA Study. Appetite, 51, 519-525.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2008.04.002

 
 
Top