PSYCH  Vol.6 No.9 , July 2015
Interaction between Mental Rotation and Manual Rotation with and without Motor Planning
Two experiments involving mental rotation with two types of manual rotation were run. In Exp 1, participants had to perform the mental rotation task with active hand movement using a rotating device that did not move automatically. In Exp 2, participants had to perform the mental rotation with passive hand movement using an automatically rotating device. The interaction effect between mental and manual rotation was observed only in the former case. These opposing results indicate that it is motor planning associated only with active movement that plays an important role in the interaction between mental and manual rotation and not the proprioceptive/kinesthetic feedback caused by the manual rotation itself.

Cite this paper
Nishihara, S. , Imai, F. , Fujiki, A. and Majima, Y. (2015) Interaction between Mental Rotation and Manual Rotation with and without Motor Planning. Psychology, 6, 1086-1095. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.69106.
[1]   Grush, R. (2004). The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 377-396.

[2]   Kosslyn, S. M., Behrmann, M., & Jeannerod, M. (1995). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Mental Imagery. Neuropsychologia, 33, 1335-1344.

[3]   Logie, R. H. (1995). Visuo-Spatial Working Memory. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.

[4]   Pearson, G. D. (2001). Imagery and the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working Memory in Perspective (pp. 33-59). Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.

[5]   Pearson, G. D., Logie, R. H., & Gilhooly, K. J. (1999). Verbal Representations and Spatial Manipulation during Mental Synthesis. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 11, 295-314.

[6]   Quinn, J. G., & Ralston, G. E. (1986). Movement and Attention in Visual Working Memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 38, 689-703.

[7]   Shepard, R. N., & Metzler, J. (1971). Mental Rotation of Three Dimensional Objects. Science, 171, 701-703.

[8]   Wexler, M., Kosslyn, S. M., & Berthoz, A. (1998). Motor Processes in Mental Rotation. Cognition, 68, 77-94.

[9]   Wohlschläger, A. (2001). Mental Object Rotation and the Planning of Hand Movements. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 709-718.

[10]   Wohlschläger, A., & Wohlschläger, A. (1998). Mental and Manual Rotation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 397-412.