OJSS  Vol.5 No.7 , July 2015
Physical and Biochemical Properties of Apple Orchard Soils of Different Productivities
Abstract: Physical and biochemical properties of apple orchard soils of different productivities (orchard A: 30 t·haǃ orchard B: 20 t·haǃ) were analyzed. Most of the physical properties were similar in both orchards. In orchard A, the horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity at 10-cm depth was 16.42 cm·dayǃ, and was about four times higher than that in orchard B (4.41 cm·dayǃ). Total carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were about two times higher in orchard B soil, whereas total potassium, bacterial biomass, nitrification, and phosphorus mineralization activities were similar in both orchards. Excess nutrients accumulated on the top 15 cm layer of orchard B soil because the topographical and physical conditions were associated with reduced apple productivity. Appropriate management of fallen leaves and reduction of chemical fertilizer seem necessary for a high level of apple productivity.
Cite this paper: Kai, T. , Mukai, M. , Araki, K. , Adhikari, D. and Kubo, M. (2015) Physical and Biochemical Properties of Apple Orchard Soils of Different Productivities. Open Journal of Soil Science, 5, 149-156. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2015.57015.

[1]   Forsline, P.L., Aldwinckle, H.S., Dickson, E.E., Luby, J.J. and Hokanson, S.C. (2003) Collection, Maintenance, Characterization, and Utilization of Wild Apples of Central Asia. Horticultural Reviews: Wild Apple and Fruit Trees of Central Asia, 29, 1-62.

[2]   Cornille, A., Gladieux, P., Smulders, M.J., Roldán-Ruiz, I., Laurens, F., Le Cam, B., Nersesyan, A., Clavel, J., Olonova, M., Feugey, L., Gabrielyan, I., Zhang, X.G. and Giraud, T. (2012) New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties. PLoS Genetics, 8, e1002703.

[3]   Soejima, J., Bessho, H., Tsuchiya, S., Komori, S., Abe, K. and Kotoda, N. (1998) Breeding of Fuji Apples and Performance on JM Root Stocks. Compact Fruit Tree, 31, 22-24.

[4]   MAFF (2014) Monthly Statistics of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan.

[5]   FAO (2014) FAOSTAT.

[6]   Krishna, K.R. (2014) Agroecosystems: Soils, Climate, Crops, Nutrient Dynamics and Productivity. Apple Academic Press, Inc., Oakville.

[7]   Neilsen, D. and Neilsen, G.H. (2002) Efficient Use of Nitrogen and Water in High-Density Apple Orchards. HorTechnology, 12, 19-25.

[8]   Han, M.Y., Zhang, L.X., Fan, C.H., Liu, L.H., Zhang, L.S., Li, B.Z. and Alva, A.K. (2011) Release of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium during the Decomposition of Apple (Malus domestica) Leaf Litter under Different Fertilization Regimes in Loess Plateau, China. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 57, 549-557.

[9]   Tagliavini, M., Tonon, G., Scandellari, F., Quinones, A., Palmieri, S., Menarbin, G., Gioacchini, P. and Masia, A. (2007) Nutrient Recycling during the Decomposition of Apple Leaves (Malus domestica) and Mowed Grasses in an Orchard. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 118, 191-200.

[10]   Tonon, G., Ciavatta, C., Solimando, D., Gioacchini, P. and Tagliavini, M. (2007) Fate of 15N Derived from Soil Decomposition of Abscised Leaves and Pruning Wood from Apple (Malus domestica) Trees. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 78-85.

[11]   Fujisawa, M. and Kobayashi, K. (2013) Shifting from Apple to Peach Farming in Kazuno, Northern Japan: Perceptions of and Responses to Climatic and Non-Climatic Impacts. Regional Environmental Change, 13, 1211-1222.

[12]   Dris, R. (2002) Influence of Orchard Management on Growth and Production of Fruits. In: Dris, T., Jain S.M. and Khan I.A., Eds., Environment and Crop Production, Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 1-3.

[13]   Aggelopoulou, K.D., Wulfsohn, D., Fountas, S., Gemtos, T.A., Nanos, G.D. and Blackmore, S. (2010) Spatial Variation in Yield and Quality in a Small Apple Orchard. Precision Agriculture, 11, 538-556.

[14]   Nagano Agricultural Administration Department (2000) The Guide of Environment-Friendly Agricultural Technology.

[15]   Munsell Color Company (1975) Munsell Soil Color Charts. Munsell Color Company, Baltimore.

[16]   Aoshima, H., Kimura, A., Shibutani, A., Okada, C., Matsumiya, Y. and Kubo, M. (2006) Evaluation of Soil Bacterial Biomass Using Environmental DNA Extracted by Slow-Stirring Method. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 71, 875-880.

[17]   Horii, S., Matsuno, T., Tagomori, J., Mukai, M., Adhikari, D. and Kubo, M. (2013) Isolation and Identification of Phytate-Degrading Bacteria and Their Contribution to Phytate Mineralization in Soil. The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 59, 353-360.

[18]   Komamura, K., Suzuki, A., Fukumoto, M., Kato, K. and Sato, Y. (2000) Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen Application on Tree Growth, Yield, and Fruit Qualities in a “Jonathan” Apple Orchard. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 69, 617-623.

[19]   Ro, H.M. and Park, J.M. (2000) Nitrogen Requirements and Vegetative Growth of Pot-Lysimeter-Grown “Fuji” Apple Trees Fertilized by Drip Irrigation with Three Nitrogen Rates. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 75, 237-242.

[20]   Kumar, K. and Goh, K.M. (1999) Crop Residues and Management Practices: Effects on Soil Quality, Soil Nitrogen Dynamics, Crop Yield, and Nitrogen Recovery. Advances in Agronomy, 68, 197-319.

[21]   Haynes, R.J. and Goh, K.M. (1980) Some Effects of Orchard Soil Management on Sward Composition, Levels of Available Nutrients in the Soil, and Leaf Nutrient Content of Mature “Golden Delicious” Apple Trees. Scientia Horticulturae, 13, 15-25.

[22]   Marshall, M.R., Francis, O.J., Frogbrook, Z.L., Jackson, B.M., McIntyre, N., Reynolds, B., Solloway, I., Wheater, H.S. and Chell, J. (2009) The Impact of Upland Land Management on Flooding: Results from an Improved Pasture Hillslope. Hydrological Processes, 23, 464-475.

[23]   Gonzalez-Sosa, E., Braud, I., Dehotin, J., Lassabatère, L., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Lagouy, M., Branger, M., Jacqueminet, C., Kermadi, S. and Michel, K. (2010) Impact of Land Use on the Hydraulic Properties of the Topsoil in a Small French Catchment. Hydrological Processes, 24, 2382-2399.

[24]   Archer, N.A.L., Bonell, M., Coles, N., MacDonald, A.M., Auton, C.A. and Stevenson, R. (2013) Soil Characteristics and Landcover Relationships on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity at a Hillslope Scale: A View towards Local Flood Management. Journal of Hydrology, 497, 208-222.

[25]   Oliveira, M.T. and Merwin, I.A. (2001) Soil Physical Conditions in a New York Orchard after Eight Years under Different Groundcover Management Systems. Plant and Soil, 234, 233-237.

[26]   Drake S.R., Raese, J.T. and Smith, T.J. (2002) Time of Nitrogen Application and Its Influence on “Golden Delicious” Apple Yield and Fruit Quality. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25, 143-157.

[27]   Nava, G. and Dechen, A.R. (2009) Long-Term Annual Fertilization with Nitrogen and Potassium Affect Yield and Mineral Composition of “Fuji” Apple. Scientia Agricola, 66, 377-385.

[28]   Teravest, D., Smith, J.L., Carpenter-Boggs, L., Hoagland, L., Granatstein, D. and Reganold, J.P. (2010) Influence of Orchard Floor Management and Compost Application Timing on Nitrogen Partitioning in Apple Trees. HortScience, 45, 637-642.