OJMS  Vol.5 No.3 , July 2015
Evidence of Upwelling along Peninsular Malaysia during Southwest Monsoon
ABSTRACT
Upwelling off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (PM) was detected from recent cruise data collected during the southwest monsoon. Thermocline lifting was observed at 104?E from a number of parallel transects. To confirm the presence of upwelling, satellite remote sensing data were used, and numerical model experiments were conducted. A cooler sea-surface temperature along the coast was spotted from both in-situ and satellite data while upward movement from the model agreed with field data. The southwesterly wind that blows along PM from June to September is believed to be the important mechanism that contributed to this upwelling through an Ekman dynamics process.

Cite this paper
Akhir, M. , Daryabor, F. , Husain, M. , Tangang, F. and Qiao, F. (2015) Evidence of Upwelling along Peninsular Malaysia during Southwest Monsoon. Open Journal of Marine Science, 5, 273-279. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2015.53022.
References
[1]   Chen, C., Lai, Z., Beardsley, R.C., et al. (2012) Current Separation and Upwelling over the Southeast Shelf of Vietnam in the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007150

[2]   Kuo, N.J., Zheng, Q. and Ho, C.R. (2000) Satellite Observation of Upwelling along the Western Coast of the South China Sea. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74, 463-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(00)00138-3

[3]   Xie, S.P., Xie, Q., Wang, D. and Liu, W.T. (2003) Summer Upwelling in the South China Sea and Its Role in Regional Climate Variations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001867

[4]   Lü, X., Qiao, F., Wang, G., et al. (2008) Upwelling off the West Coast of Hainan Island in Summer: Its Detection and Mechanisms. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, Article ID: L02604.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032440

[5]   Su, J. and Pohlmann, T. (2009) Wind and Topography Influence on an Upwelling System at the Eastern Hainan Coast. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, Article ID: C06017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005018

[6]   Liong, P.C. (1974) Hydrographic Condition off East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia during August 1972, Malaysian. Agriculture Journal, 49, 492-513.

[7]   Marghany, M. and Hussien, M.L. (2003) Upwelling and Downwelling along the Coastal Waters of Kuala Terengganu. Ultra Scientist of Physical Sciences, 15, 201-208.
http://ultrascientist.org/JUSPS/15(2)/1.htm

[8]   Dippner, J.W., Nguyen, K.V., Hein, H., Ohde, T. and Loick, N. (2007) Monsoon-Induced Upwelling off the Vietnamese Coast. Ocean Dynamics, 57, 46-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-006-0091-0

[9]   Dale, W.L. (1956) Wind and Drift Currents in the South China Sea. The Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography, 8, 1-31.

[10]   Wyrtki, K. (1961) Scientific Results of Marine Investigations of the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand 1959-1961. Naga Report 2.

[11]   Yanagi, T., Sachoemar, S.I., Takao, T. and Fujiwara, S. (2001) Seasonal Variation of Stratification in the Gulf of Thai-land. Journal of Oceanography, 57, 461-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021237721368

[12]   Fang, W., Fang, G., Shi, P. and Huang, Q. (2002) Seasonal Structures of Upper Layer Circulation in the Southern South China Sea from in Situ Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001343

[13]   Akhir, M.F. (2012) Surface Circulation and Temperature Distribution of Southern South China Sea from Global Ocean Model (OCCAM). Sains Malaysiana, 41, 701-714.

[14]   Tangang, F.T., Xia, C., Qiao, F., et al. (2011) Seasonal Circulations in the Malay Peninsula Eastern Continental Shelf from a Wave-Tide-Circulation Coupled Model. Ocean Dynamics, 61, 1317-1328.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-011-0432-5

[15]   Smith, W.H. and Sandwell, D.T. (1997) Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings. Science, 277, 1956-1962. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5334.1956

[16]   Penven, P., Marchesiello, P., Debreu, L. and Lefèvre, J. (2008) Software Tools for Pre- and Post-Processing of Oceanic Regional Simulations. Environmental Modelling & Software, 23, 660-662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2007.07.004

[17]   Da Silva, A.M., Young, C.C. and Levitus, S. (1994) Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Vol. 1, Algorithms and Procedures. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS, USA.

[18]   Berliand, M.E. and Berliand, T.G. (1952) Measurement of the Effective Radiation of the Earth with Varying Cloud Amounts. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSR, Ser. Geo?z., 1, 64-78. (In Russian)

[19]   Large, W.G., McWilliams, J.C. and Doney, S.C. (1994) A Review and Model with a Nonlocal Boundary Layer Parameterization. Reviews of Geophysics, 32, 363-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94RG01872

[20]   Locarnini, R.A., Mishonov, A.V., Antonov, J.I., et al. (2006) World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 1: Temperature. In: Levitus, S., Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

[21]   Marchesiello, P., McWilliams, J.C. and Shchepetkin, A. (2001) Open Boundary Conditions for Long-Term Integration of Regional Oceanic Models. Ocean Modelling, 3, 1-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1463-5003(00)00013-5

[22]   Chu, P.C., Edmons, N.L. and Fan, C. (1999) Dynamical Mechanisms for the South China Sea Seasonal Circulation and ThermohalineVariabilities. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 2971-2989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<2971:DMFTSC>2.0.CO;2

[23]   Kampf, J. (2004) Evidence of a Large Seasonal Coastal Upwelling System along the Southern Shelf of Australia. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, Article ID: L09310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003gl019221

 
 
Top