AHS  Vol.4 No.3 , June 2015
Commemorative Practices in the Humanities around 1900
Author(s) Jo Tollebeek
ABSTRACT
Around 1900, the humanities underwent a metamorphosis which led to the emergence of modern disciplines. This transformation was accompanied by another process, the building of scientific communities. The central question addressed in this essay was how these new disciplinary communities in the humanities were strengthened by commemorative practices. Those practices could be highly diverse, ranging from the dedication of a book and the circulation and collection of photographs to the organisation of tribute events, attending of funerals and writing of obituaries. The forms that these practices could take were mapped out in this essay using material drawn from the archives of three prominent (literary) historians from Belgium and the Netherlands: Paul Fredericq, Robert Fruin and Jan te Winkel.

Cite this paper
Tollebeek, J. (2015) Commemorative Practices in the Humanities around 1900. Advances in Historical Studies, 4, 216-231. doi: 10.4236/ahs.2015.43017.
References
[1]   150 Jahre Geschichtsforschung im Spiegel der Historischen Zeitschrift (2009). Special Edition of Historische Zeitschrift (Vol. 289, No. 1).

[2]   Abir-Am, P. G. (Ed.) (1998). La mise en mémoire de la science. Pour une ethnographie historique des rites commémoratifs. Paris: Editions des Archives Contemporaines.

[3]   Abir-Am, P. G., & Elliott, C. A. (Eds.) (1999). Commemorative Practices in Science: Historical Perspectives on the Politics of Collective Memory. Special Edition Osiris. A Research Journal Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences, 2nd Series, 14.

[4]   Abma, R. (2011). Over de grenzen van disciplines. Plaatsbepaling van de sociale wetenschappen. Nijmegen: Vantilt.

[5]   Ben-Amos, A. (2000). Funerals, Politics, and Memory in Modern France, 1789-1996. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203285.001.0001

[6]   Berger, S. (2011). Fathers’ and Their Fate in Modern European National Historiographies. In H. Paul (Ed.), Fathers of History: Genealogies of the Historical Discipline (Vol. 59-60, pp. 231-250). Special Supplement in Storia della Storiografia.

[7]   Bergvelt, E., Knegtmans, P. J., & Schilder, M. (Eds.) (2007). Kleurrijke professoren. 375 jaar portretkunst in de collectie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

[8]   Billen, C., & Boone, M. (2011). Pirenne in Brussels Before 1930: Guillaume des Marez and the Relationship between a Master and His Student. In M. Boone, C. Billen, & S. Keymeulen (Eds.), Henri Pirenne (1862-1935): A Belgian Historian and the Development of Social and Historical Sciences (Vol. 41, pp. 459-485). Special Edition of Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis/Revue belge d’Histoire contemporaine.

[9]   Biondì, D. (Ed.) (2011). What Philosophers of History Can Do with The Self-Image of the Historical Discipline (Vol. 59-60, pp. 150-223). Special Supplement in Storia della Storiografia.

[10]   Bod, R. (2010). De vergeten wetenschappen. Een geschiedenis van de humaniora. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

[11]   Bonnet, J.-C. (1986). Les morts illustres: oraison funèbre, éloge académique, nécrologie. In P. Nora (Ed.), Les lieux de mémoire, Part 2: La Nation (Vol. 3, pp. 217-241). Paris: Gallimard.

[12]   Bonnet, J.-C. (1998). Naissance du panthéon. Essai sur le culte des grands hommes. Paris: Fayard.

[13]   Bouwers, E. G. (2011). Public Pantheons in Revolutionary Europe: Comparing Cultures of Remembrance, c. 1790-1840. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230360983

[14]   Burke, P. (2010). Co-Memorations: Performing the Past. In K. Tilmans, F. van Vree, & J. Winter (Eds.), Performing the Past: Memory, History, and Identity in Modern Europe (pp. 105-118). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

[15]   Clark, W. (2006). Academic Charisma and the Origins of the Research University. Chicago-London: The University of Chicago Press.

[16]   Collini, S. (2012). The Character of the Humanities. In S. Collini (Ed.), What Are Universities for? (pp. 61-85). London: Penguin Books.

[17]   Craik, K. H. (2009). Reputation: A Network Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[18]   Daston, L., & Galison. P. (2010). Objectivity. New York: Zone Books.

[19]   Dorsman, L. (2011). Van OB 1815 naar WHW 1985: Van “geleerde stand” naar “zelfstandige beoefening der wetenschap”. Het hoger onderwijs en de disciplines. In L. Dorsman, & P. J. Knegtmans (Eds.), Van Lectio tot PowerPoint. Over de geschiedenis van het onderwijs aan de Nederlandse universiteiten (pp. 115-128). Hilversum: Verloren.

[20]   Ekkart, R. E. O. et al. (1991). Knappe koppen. Vier eeuwen Nederlands professorenportret. Utrecht-Zutphen: Centraal Museum.

[21]   Erdmann, K. D. (1987). Die Ökumene der Historiker. Geschichte der Internationalen Historikerkongresse und des Comité International des Sciences Historiques. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

[22]   Eskildsen, K. R. (2008). Leopold Ranke’s Archival Turn: Location and Evidence in Modern Historiography. Modern Intellectual History, 5, 425-453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1479244308001753

[23]   Fredericq, P. (1899). L’enseignement supérieur de l’histoire. Notes et impressions de voyage. Allemagne-France-Ecosse- Angleterre-Hollande-Belgique. Ghent-Paris: J. Vuylsteke-Félix Alcan.

[24]   Fumaroli, M. (1986). La Coupole. In P. Nora (Ed.), Les lieux de mémoire, Part 2: La Nation (Vol. 3, pp. 321-388). Paris: Gallimard.

[25]   Gossman, L. (2000). Basel in the Age of Burckhardt: A Study in Unseasonable Ideas. Chicago-London: The University of Chicago Press.

[26]   Graham, L. R., Lepenies, W., & Weingart, P. (Eds.) (1983). Functions and Uses of Disciplinary Histories. Dordrecht-Bos- ton-Lancaster: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7035-9

[27]   Grever, T., van Lith, W., & Montijn, I. (2011). Thérèse Schwartze 1851-1918. De Nederlandse fine fleur geportretteerd. Zwolle: W Books.

[28]   Haak, P., & Vogelaar, C. (2001). Het kabinet van Robert Fruin. Een 19de eeuwse kijk op de vaderlandse geschiedenis. Leiden: Stedelijk Museum.

[29]   Hartog, F. (2001). Le XIXe siècle et l’histoire. Le cas Fustel de Coulanges. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

[30]   Hollema, C. (2010). Thérèse Schwartze (1851-1918). Haar klant was koning. Zutphen: Walburg Pers.

[31]   Iggers, G. G. (1962). The Image of Ranke in German and American Historical Thought. History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History, 3, 17-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2504333

[32]   Johannes, G.-J. (2011). “Nationale filologieën” en het historisch onderzoek naar disciplinevorming in de geesteswetenschappen. Een verkenning. Studium. Tijdschrift voor Wetenschaps-en
Universiteitsgeschiedenis/Revue d’Histoire des Sciences et des Universités, 4, 31-46.

[33]   Jordanova, L. (2000). Defining Features: Scientific and Medical Portraits 1660-2000. London: Reaktion Books.

[34]   Kelley, D. R. (2003). Fortunes of History: Historical Inquiry from Herder to Huizinga. New Haven-London: Yale University Press.

[35]   Keymeulen, S., & Tollebeek, J. (2011). Henri Pirenne, Historian: A Life in Pictures. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

[36]   Manifestation en l’honneur de M. le professeur Henri Pirenne. Bruxelles 12 mai 1912 (Mons 1912).

[37]   Møller Jørgensen, C. (2012). Scholarly Communication with a Political Impetus: National Historical Journals. In I. Porciani, & J. Tollebeek (Eds.), Setting the Standards: Institutions, Networks and Communities of National Historiography (pp. 70-88). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[38]   Nora, O. (1986). La visite au grand écrivain. In P. Nora (Ed.), Les lieux de mémoire, Part 2: La Nation (Vol. 3, pp. 563-587). Paris: Gallimard.

[39]   Notteboom, B., & Lauwaert, D. (Eds.) (2011). Edmond Sacré. Portret van een stad. Gent, 1851-1921. Brussels-Ghent: Mercatorfonds-STAM.

[40]   Oosterheert, J. (2009). In vol ornaat. Vier eeuwen Groningse senaatsgalerij. Groningen: Barkhuis Publishing.

[41]   Paul, H. (2010). “De Hollandsche meester der streng-analytischen methode”. Robert Fruin als vader van de Nederlandse geschiedwetenschap. In H. Paul, & H. te Velde (Eds.), Het vaderlandse verleden. Robert Fruin en de Nederlandse geschiedenis (pp. 221-248). Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

[42]   Paul, H. (2011). Voorbeeld en voorganger. Robert Fruin en Godefroid Kurth als vaders van de geschiedwetenschap. Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden/The Low Countries Historical Review, 126, 30-53.

[43]   Paul, H. (Ed.) (2011). Fathers of History: Genealogies of the Historical Discipline. Special Supplement in Storia della Storiografia, 59-60, 224-293.

[44]   Petit, A. (1998). La commémoration de l’héritage scientifique dans le positivisme: théories et pratiques. In P. G. Abir-Am (Ed.), La mise en mémoire de la science. Pour une ethnographie historique des rites commémoratifs (pp. 159-187). Paris: Editions des Archives Contemporaines.

[45]   Rigney, A. (2011). Embodied communities: commemorating Robert Burns, 1859. Representations, 115, 71-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/rep.2011.115.1.71

[46]   Smit, H. J., & Wieringa, W. J. (Eds.) (1957). Correspondentie van Robert Fruin 1845-1899. Groningen-Jakarta: J.B. Wolters.

[47]   Tollebeek, J. (2004). Writing the Inquisition in Europe and America: The Correspondence between Henry Charles Lea and Paul Fredericq. Brussels: Royal Historical Commission.

[48]   Tollebeek, J. (2008). Fredericq & Zonen. Een antropologie van de moderne geschiedwetenschap. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

[49]   Tollebeek, J. (2010). Een wetenschap van kleine gebaren. Historiografische praktijken in de late negentiende eeuw. In H. Paul, & H. te Velde (Eds.), Het vaderlandse verleden. Robert Fruin en de Nederlandse geschiedenis (pp. 17-37). Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

[50]   Tollebeek, J. (2011). Men of Character: The Emergence of the Modern Humanities. Wassenaar: Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

[51]   Tollebeek, J. (2012). Exegi Monumentum: The Great Syntheses of National History. In I. Porciani, & J. Tollebeek (Eds.), Setting the Standards: Institutions, Networks and Communities of National Historiography (pp. 105-129). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[52]   Tollebeek, J., & Verschaffel, T. (2000). “A Profitable Company”. Het pantheon als historisch genre in het negentiende-eeu- wse België. Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 115, 223-243.

[53]   Torstendahl, R. (2010). From All-round to Professional Education: How Young Historians Became Members of an Academic Community in the Nineteenth Century. Een goede historicus? Negentiende-eeuwse idealen en praktijken, special edition Leidschrift, 25, 17-31.

[54]   Van Berkel, K. (2009). Academisch leven. Over geschiedenis, karakter en veerkracht van de Nederlandse universiteit. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

[55]   Van Bosstraeten, T. (2011). Dogs and Coca-Cola. Commemorative Practices as Part of Laboratory Culture at the Heymans Institute Ghent, 1902-1970. Centaurus, 53, 1-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0498.2010.00204.x

[56]   Van Lennep, J. (1993). Les bustes de l’Académie royale de Belgique. Histoire et catalogue raisonné précédés d’un essai Le portrait sculpté depuis la Renaissance. Brussels: Académie royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique.

[57]   Veldman, I. M. (2010). De kast van Fruin. Prenten als historische bron. In H. Paul, & H. te Velde (Eds.), Het vaderlandse verleden. Robert Fruin en de Nederlandse geschiedenis (pp. 82-107). Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

[58]   Verschaffel, T. (1998). De hoed en de hond. Geschiedschrijving in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden 1715-1794. Hilversum: Verloren.

[59]   Waquet, F. (2005). Acknowledgments: Instructions for Use. Modern Intellectual History, 2, 361-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S147924430500048X

[60]   Waquet, F. (2006a). Les “mélanges”: Honneur et gratitude dans l’Université contemporaine. Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, 53, 100-121.

[61]   Waquet, F. (2006b). Academic Homage and Intellectual Genealogy: The Collège de France Inaugural Lectures, 1949-2003. History of Universities, 21, 202-227.

[62]   Wegener, D. (2011). Wetenschapsgeschiedenis op lange termijn: flexibiliteit en fragiliteit van disciplines. Studium. Tijdschrift voor Wetenschaps-en Universiteitsgeschiedenis/Revue d’Histoire des Sciences et des Universités, 4, 16-30.

[63]   Welvaert, A. (2002). De heroïek van de waarheidszoeker. Belgische wetenschapsbiografieën 1870-1930. Leuven: unpublished master thesis.

[64]   Wesseling, H. L. (1988). Robert Fruin, De geschiedenis van een reputatie. Jaarboek van de Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde te Leiden 1986-1987, 1988, 3-18.

[65]   Zwick, J. (1997). Akademische Erinnerungskultur, Wissenschaftsgeschichte und Rhetorik im 19. Jahrhundert. über Emil Du Bois-Reymond als Festredner. Scientia Poetica, 1, 120-139.

 
 
Top