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 EPE  Vol.7 No.6 , June 2015
Investigating Levels of Low Frequency Magnetic Field in the Inhabited Vicinity of Power Transmission Lines of Kuwait
Abstract: According to surveyed literature, there may be a health hazard associated with extremely low frequency magnetic fields. This study aims at presenting a recent survey of this literature. It also aims at measuring magnetic field levels close to power transmission lines at inhabited areas in Kuwait to see if current levels are safe and to establish a database of 50 Hz magnetic field levels at inhabited areas. Measurements were made, according to the international standard procedures in winter, spring, summer and fall, and three times of a day. Four inhabited areas were surveyed. Results provide us with an independent view of the levels in the vicinity of power lines and houses. Results show that the highest level is measured in the summer, reaching 115 mG while the minimum level is measured in the fall. We found that some houses were at less than 50 meters distance from the edge of the transmission lines. Some houses were, as close as 22 meters to the line. We found that levels at the entrance of houses and at outdoor parking areas were mostly higher than 4 mG.
Cite this paper: Alkoot, F. (2015) Investigating Levels of Low Frequency Magnetic Field in the Inhabited Vicinity of Power Transmission Lines of Kuwait. Energy and Power Engineering, 7, 297-317. doi: 10.4236/epe.2015.76028.
References

[1]   Shangzun, Y., Pengfei, L. and Ling, N. (2008) Study on Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Voltage Power Transmission Line. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, Singapore, 29 August-2 September 2008, 402-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccsit.2008.92

[2]   Tukimin, R., Mahadi, W.N.L., Ali, M.Y.M. and Thari, M.N.M. (2007) Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF EMF) Survey of Residential Areas around Transmission Lines. Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, Melaka, 4-6 December 2007, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/apace.2007.4603908

[3]   Karipidis, K.K. and Martin, L.J. (2005) Pilot Study of Residential Power Frequency Magnetic Fields in Melbourne. ARPNSA Technical Report 142.

[4]   Mamishev, A.V. and Russell, B.D. (1995) Measurement of Magnetic Fields in the Direct Proximity of Power Line Conductors. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 10, 1211-1216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/61.400898

[5]   DiPlacido, J., Shih, C.H. and Ware, B.J. (1978) Analysis of Proximity Effects in Electric Field Measurements. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-97, 2167-2177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAS.1978.354720

[6]   Habiballah, I.O., Dawoud, M.M., Al-Balawi, K. and Farag, A.S. (2003) Magnetic Field Measurement & Simulation of a 230KV Substation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation at UNITEN, Malaysia, 20-22 October 2003.

[7]   Said, I., Farag, A.S., Hussain, H. and Rahman, N.A. (2004) Measurement of Magnetic Field from Distribution Substations in Malaysia. Proceedings of the Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, Brisbane, 26-29 September 2004.

[8]   Ahlbom, A., Day, N., Feychting, M., Roman, E., Skinner, J., Dockerty, J., Linet, M., McBride, M., Michaella, J., Olsen, J.H., Tynes, T. and Verkasalo, P.K. (2000) A Pooled Analysis of Magnetic Fields and Childhood Leukemia. British Journal of Cancer, 83, 692-708.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2000.1376

[9]   Alkoot, F.M. and Zaeri, N. (2007) Measurement of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from Overhead Power Lines in the State of Kuwait. Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems, Beijing, 15-17 September 2007..

[10]   Alkoot, F.M. and Zaeri, N. (2011) Experimental Study on Power Frequency Magnetic Radiation from AC Power Lines in the State of Kuwait. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering, 38, 79-104.

[11]   Qabazard, A.M. (2007) Survey of Electromagnetic Field Radiation Associated with Power Transmission Lines in the State of Kuwait. Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, Torino, 17-21 September 2007, 795-797.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICEAA.2007.4387423

[12]   Wertheimer, N. and Leeper, E. (1979) Electrical Wiring Configurations and Childhood Cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 273-284.

[13]   Green, L.M., Miller, A.B., Agnew, D.A., Greenberg, M.L., Li, J.H., Villeneuve, P.J. and Tibshirani, R. (1999) Childhood Leukemia and Personal Monitoring of Residential Exposures to Electric and Magnetic Fields in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Causes and Control, 10, 233-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008919408855

[14]   Schuz, J., Grigat, J., Brinkmann, K. and Michaelis, J. (2001) Residential Magnetic Fields as a Risk Factor for Childhood Acute Leukemia: Results from a German Population-Based Case-Control Study. International Journal of Cancer, 91, 728-735.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0215(200002)9999:9999<::AID-IJC1097>3.0.CO;2-D

[15]   Ahlbom, A., Cardis, E., Green, A.C., Linet, M., Savitz, D.A. and Swerdlow, A.J. (2001) ICNIRP SCI Review of the Epidemiology Literature on EMF and Health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 911-933.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3454653

[16]   Kheifets, L., Ahlbom, A., Crespi, C.M., Draper, G., Hagihara, J., Lowenthal, R.M., Mezei, G., Oksuzyan, S., Schüz, J., Swanson, J., Tittarelli, A., Vinceti, M. and WunschFilho, V. (2010) Pooled Analysis of Recent Studies on Magnetic Fields and Childhood Leukemia. British Journal of Cancer, 103, 1128-1135.

[17]   Foliart, D.E., Pollock, B.H., Mezei, G., Iriye, R., Silva, J.M., Ebi, K.L., Kheifets, L., Link, M.P. and Kavet, R. (2006) Magnetic Field Exposure and Long-Term Survival among Children with Leukemia. British Journal of Cancer, 94, 161-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602916

[18]   WHO (2007) Extremely Low Frequency Fields, Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No. 238. Geneva.

[19]   Carpenter, D. and Sage, C. (2007) BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for a Biologically-Based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF).
http://www.bioinitiative.org

[20]   California Department of Health, California EMF Program (2002) Risk Evaluation: An Evaluation of Possible Risks from Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMFs) from Power Lines, Internal Wiring, Electrical Occupations, and Appliances. Final Report June 2002, California EMF Program, Oakland.

[21]   Feychting, M. and Ahlbom, A. (1993) Magnetic Fields and Cancer in Children Residing near Swedish High Voltage Power Lines. American Journal of Epidemics, 7, 467-481.

[22]   Loomis, D.P., Savitz, D.A. and Ananth, C.V. (1994) Breast Cancer Mortality among Female Electrical Workers in the United States. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 86, 921-925.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/86.12.921

[23]   Neutra, R.R., DelPizzo, V. and Lee, G. (2002) An Evaluation of the Possible Risks from Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMFs) From Power Lines, Internal Wiring, Electrical Occupation and Appliances, California EMF Program Final Report.

[24]   Kheifets, L., Kheifets, L., Ahlbom, A., Crespi, C.M., Feychting, M., Johansen, C., Monroe, J., Murphy, M.F.G., Oksuzyan, S., Preston-Martin, S., Roman, E., Saito, T., Savitz, D., Schüz, J., Simpson, J., Swanson, J., Tynes, T., Verkasalo, P. and Mezei, G. (2010) A Pooled Analysis of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Childhood Brain Tumors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172, 752-761.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq181

[25]   Havas, M. (2004) Biological Effects of Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields. In: Clements-Croome, D., Ed., Electromagnetism and Health, Taylor & Francis Books, Ltd., London, 25 p.

[26]   Schuz, J. (2011) Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer: The Epidemiological Evidence. Proceedings of the URSI—General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, 13-20 August 2011.

[27]   Lee, G.M., Neutra, R.R., Hristova, L., Yost, M. and Hiatt, R.A. (2002) A Nested Case-Control Study of Residential and Personal Magnetic Field Measures and Miscarriages. Epidemiology, 13, 21-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200201000-00005

[28]   IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer.
http://www.iarc.fr

[29]   National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
http://www.niehs.nih.gov

[30]   Dockerty, J.D., Elwood, J.M., Skegg, D.G. and Herbison, G.P. (1998) Electromagnetic Field Exposures and Childhood Cancers in New Zealand. Cancer Causes & Control, 9, 299-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008825220759

[31]   Linet, M.S., Hatch, E.E., Kleinerman, R.A., Robison, L.L., Kaune, W.T., Friedman, D.R., Severson, R.K., Haines, C.M., Hartsock, C.T., Niwa, S., Wacholder, S. and Tarone, R.E. (1997) Residential Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1-7.

[32]   McBride, M.L., Gallagher, R.P., Theriault, G., Armstrong, B.G., Tamaro, S., Spinelli, J.J., Deadman, J.E., Fincham, S., Robson, D. and Choi, W. (1999) Power-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields and Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Canada. American Journal of Epidemiology, 149, 831-842.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009899

[33]   Savitz, D.A., Wachtel, H., Barnes, F.A., John, E.M. and Tvrdik, J.G. (1988) Case Control Study of Childhood Cancer and Exposure to 60-Hz Magnetic Fields. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128, 21-38.

[34]   US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (1999) Health Effects from Exposure to Power-Line Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields, Research Triangle Park, NC.

[35]   NRPB (2001) ELF Electromagnetic Fields and the Risk of Cancer: Report of an Advisory Group on Non-Ionising Radiation. Documents of the NRPB, Volume 12, No. 1.

[36]   Lowenthal, R.M., Tuck, D.M. and Bray, I.C. (2007) Residential Exposure to Electric Power Transmission Lines and Risk of Lymphoproliferative and Myeloproliferative Disorders: A Case-Control Study. Internal Medicine Journal, 37, 614-619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.2007.01389.x

[37]   Misakian, M. (1993) ELF Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Methods. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Dallas, 9-13 August 1993, 150-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/isemc.1993.473761

[38]   ICNIRP (2010) ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1Hz-100 KHz). Health Physics, 99, 818-836.

[39]   IEEE644 (1994) Procedures for Measurement of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields from AC Power Lines.

[40]   Bowman, J.D., Kelsh, M.A. and Kaune, W.T. (1998) Manual for Measuring Occupational Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure. NIOSH-CDC Publication Number 98-154.

[41]   Karipidis, K.K. (2002) Measurement of Residential Power Frequency Magnetic Fields. Australian Radiation Protection & Nuclear Safety Agency, Technical Report 134.

[42]   BS EN 62311 (2008) Assessment of Electronic and Electrical Equipment Related to Human Exposure Restrictions for Electromagnetic Fields (0 Hz-300 GHz) (EN 62311:2008 Identical, IEC 62311:2007).

[43]   ICNIRP (1998) ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (Up to 300GHz). Health Physics, 74, 494-522.

[44]   ICNIRP (2009) ICNIRP Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Health Physics, 96, 504-514.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000343164.27920.4a

[45]   Kuwait Ministry of Energy-Electricity and Water (2007) Electrical Energy Statistical Yearbook.

[46]   Shangzun, Y., Pengfei, L. and Ling, N. (2008) Study on Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Voltage Power Transmission Line. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, Singapore, 29 August-2 September 2008, 402-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccsit.2008.92

[47]   Tukimin, R., Mahadi, W.N.L., Ali, M.Y.M. and Thari, M.N.M. (2007) Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF EMF) Survey of Residential Areas around Transmission Lines. Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, Melaka, 4-6 December 2007, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/apace.2007.4603908

[48]   Karipidis, K.K. and Martin, L.J. (2005) Pilot Study of Residential Power Frequency Magnetic Fields in Melbourne. ARPNSA Technical Report 142.

[49]   Mamishev, A.V. and Russell, B.D. (1995) Measurement of Magnetic Fields in the Direct Proximity of Power Line Conductors. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 10, 1211-1216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/61.400898

[50]   DiPlacido, J., Shih, C.H. and Ware, B.J. (1978) Analysis of Proximity Effects in Electric Field Measurements. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-97, 2167-2177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAS.1978.354720

[51]   Habiballah, I.O., Dawoud, M.M., Al-Balawi, K. and Farag, A.S. (2003) Magnetic Field Measurement & Simulation of a 230KV Substation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation at UNITEN, Malaysia, 20-22 October 2003.

[52]   Said, I., Farag, A.S., Hussain, H. and Rahman, N.A. (2004) Measurement of Magnetic Field from Distribution Substations in Malaysia. Proceedings of the Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, Brisbane, 26-29 September 2004.

[53]   Ahlbom, A., Day, N., Feychting, M., Roman, E., Skinner, J., Dockerty, J., Linet, M., McBride, M., Michaella, J., Olsen, J.H., Tynes, T. and Verkasalo, P.K. (2000) A Pooled Analysis of Magnetic Fields and Childhood Leukemia. British Journal of Cancer, 83, 692-708.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2000.1376

[54]   Alkoot, F.M. and Zaeri, N. (2007) Measurement of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from Overhead Power Lines in the State of Kuwait. Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems, Beijing, 15-17 September 2007..

[55]   Alkoot, F.M. and Zaeri, N. (2011) Experimental Study on Power Frequency Magnetic Radiation from AC Power Lines in the State of Kuwait. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering, 38, 79-104.

[56]   Qabazard, A.M. (2007) Survey of Electromagnetic Field Radiation Associated with Power Transmission Lines in the State of Kuwait. Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, Torino, 17-21 September 2007, 795-797.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICEAA.2007.4387423

[57]   Wertheimer, N. and Leeper, E. (1979) Electrical Wiring Configurations and Childhood Cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 273-284.

[58]   Green, L.M., Miller, A.B., Agnew, D.A., Greenberg, M.L., Li, J.H., Villeneuve, P.J. and Tibshirani, R. (1999) Childhood Leukemia and Personal Monitoring of Residential Exposures to Electric and Magnetic Fields in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Causes and Control, 10, 233-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008919408855

[59]   Schuz, J., Grigat, J., Brinkmann, K. and Michaelis, J. (2001) Residential Magnetic Fields as a Risk Factor for Childhood Acute Leukemia: Results from a German Population-Based Case-Control Study. International Journal of Cancer, 91, 728-735.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0215(200002)9999:9999<::AID-IJC1097>3.0.CO;2-D

[60]   Ahlbom, A., Cardis, E., Green, A.C., Linet, M., Savitz, D.A. and Swerdlow, A.J. (2001) ICNIRP SCI Review of the Epidemiology Literature on EMF and Health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 911-933.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3454653

[61]   Kheifets, L., Ahlbom, A., Crespi, C.M., Draper, G., Hagihara, J., Lowenthal, R.M., Mezei, G., Oksuzyan, S., Schüz, J., Swanson, J., Tittarelli, A., Vinceti, M. and WunschFilho, V. (2010) Pooled Analysis of Recent Studies on Magnetic Fields and Childhood Leukemia. British Journal of Cancer, 103, 1128-1135.

[62]   Foliart, D.E., Pollock, B.H., Mezei, G., Iriye, R., Silva, J.M., Ebi, K.L., Kheifets, L., Link, M.P. and Kavet, R. (2006) Magnetic Field Exposure and Long-Term Survival among Children with Leukemia. British Journal of Cancer, 94, 161-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602916

[63]   WHO (2007) Extremely Low Frequency Fields, Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No. 238. Geneva.

[64]   Carpenter, D. and Sage, C. (2007) BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for a Biologically-Based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF).
http://www.bioinitiative.org

[65]   California Department of Health, California EMF Program (2002) Risk Evaluation: An Evaluation of Possible Risks from Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMFs) from Power Lines, Internal Wiring, Electrical Occupations, and Appliances. Final Report June 2002, California EMF Program, Oakland.

[66]   Feychting, M. and Ahlbom, A. (1993) Magnetic Fields and Cancer in Children Residing near Swedish High Voltage Power Lines. American Journal of Epidemics, 7, 467-481.

[67]   Loomis, D.P., Savitz, D.A. and Ananth, C.V. (1994) Breast Cancer Mortality among Female Electrical Workers in the United States. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 86, 921-925.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/86.12.921

[68]   Neutra, R.R., DelPizzo, V. and Lee, G. (2002) An Evaluation of the Possible Risks from Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMFs) From Power Lines, Internal Wiring, Electrical Occupation and Appliances, California EMF Program Final Report.

[69]   Kheifets, L., Kheifets, L., Ahlbom, A., Crespi, C.M., Feychting, M., Johansen, C., Monroe, J., Murphy, M.F.G., Oksuzyan, S., Preston-Martin, S., Roman, E., Saito, T., Savitz, D., Schüz, J., Simpson, J., Swanson, J., Tynes, T., Verkasalo, P. and Mezei, G. (2010) A Pooled Analysis of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Childhood Brain Tumors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172, 752-761.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq181

[70]   Havas, M. (2004) Biological Effects of Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields. In: Clements-Croome, D., Ed., Electromagnetism and Health, Taylor & Francis Books, Ltd., London, 25 p.

[71]   Schuz, J. (2011) Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer: The Epidemiological Evidence. Proceedings of the URSI—General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, 13-20 August 2011.

[72]   Lee, G.M., Neutra, R.R., Hristova, L., Yost, M. and Hiatt, R.A. (2002) A Nested Case-Control Study of Residential and Personal Magnetic Field Measures and Miscarriages. Epidemiology, 13, 21-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200201000-00005

[73]   IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer.
http://www.iarc.fr

[74]   National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
http://www.niehs.nih.gov

[75]   Dockerty, J.D., Elwood, J.M., Skegg, D.G. and Herbison, G.P. (1998) Electromagnetic Field Exposures and Childhood Cancers in New Zealand. Cancer Causes & Control, 9, 299-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008825220759

[76]   Linet, M.S., Hatch, E.E., Kleinerman, R.A., Robison, L.L., Kaune, W.T., Friedman, D.R., Severson, R.K., Haines, C.M., Hartsock, C.T., Niwa, S., Wacholder, S. and Tarone, R.E. (1997) Residential Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1-7.

[77]   McBride, M.L., Gallagher, R.P., Theriault, G., Armstrong, B.G., Tamaro, S., Spinelli, J.J., Deadman, J.E., Fincham, S., Robson, D. and Choi, W. (1999) Power-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields and Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Canada. American Journal of Epidemiology, 149, 831-842.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009899

[78]   Savitz, D.A., Wachtel, H., Barnes, F.A., John, E.M. and Tvrdik, J.G. (1988) Case Control Study of Childhood Cancer and Exposure to 60-Hz Magnetic Fields. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128, 21-38.

[79]   US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (1999) Health Effects from Exposure to Power-Line Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields, Research Triangle Park, NC.

[80]   NRPB (2001) ELF Electromagnetic Fields and the Risk of Cancer: Report of an Advisory Group on Non-Ionising Radiation. Documents of the NRPB, Volume 12, No. 1.

[81]   Lowenthal, R.M., Tuck, D.M. and Bray, I.C. (2007) Residential Exposure to Electric Power Transmission Lines and Risk of Lymphoproliferative and Myeloproliferative Disorders: A Case-Control Study. Internal Medicine Journal, 37, 614-619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.2007.01389.x

[82]   Misakian, M. (1993) ELF Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Methods. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Dallas, 9-13 August 1993, 150-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/isemc.1993.473761

[83]   ICNIRP (2010) ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1Hz-100 KHz). Health Physics, 99, 818-836.

[84]   IEEE644 (1994) Procedures for Measurement of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields from AC Power Lines.

[85]   Bowman, J.D., Kelsh, M.A. and Kaune, W.T. (1998) Manual for Measuring Occupational Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure. NIOSH-CDC Publication Number 98-154.

[86]   Karipidis, K.K. (2002) Measurement of Residential Power Frequency Magnetic Fields. Australian Radiation Protection & Nuclear Safety Agency, Technical Report 134.

[87]   BS EN 62311 (2008) Assessment of Electronic and Electrical Equipment Related to Human Exposure Restrictions for Electromagnetic Fields (0 Hz-300 GHz) (EN 62311:2008 Identical, IEC 62311:2007).

[88]   ICNIRP (1998) ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (Up to 300GHz). Health Physics, 74, 494-522.

[89]   ICNIRP (2009) ICNIRP Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Health Physics, 96, 504-514.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000343164.27920.4a

[90]   Kuwait Ministry of Energy-Electricity and Water (2007) Electrical Energy Statistical Yearbook.

 
 
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