Back
 AJAC  Vol.6 No.7 , June 2015
Comparative Assessment of Phytochemicals, Proximate and Elemental Composition of Gnetum africanum (Okazi) Leaves
Abstract: The leaves of Gnetum africanum were studied for their proximate (nutrient), mineral (elemental) and phytochemical constituents. All analyses were done using standard analytical procedures and the results obtained showed a moisture content, crude protein, ash content, crude fibre, crude lipids and carbohydrates of 10.9%, 20.12%, 6.70%, 7.10%, 2.79% and 52.39% respectively. The mineral (elemental) analysis showed the presence of sodium, magnessium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganesse, potassium and copper in that order of decreasing concentration while notably absent was chromium and lead in the examined leaves. The phytochemicals detected in the leaves using various selected solvents were alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins with various concentrations while flavonoids, phenols and steroids were totally absent. From the results of the aforementioned analyses, it could be concluded that the leaves of Gnetum africanum contain some beneficial nutrients, mineral elements and secondary metabolites justifying the medicinal status and possible potency of the plant part.
Cite this paper: Okerulu, I. and Onyema, C. (2015) Comparative Assessment of Phytochemicals, Proximate and Elemental Composition of Gnetum africanum (Okazi) Leaves. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 604-609. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.67058.
References

[1]   Eyo, E. and Abel, U. (1983) Chemical Composition of Amino-Acid Content of Gnetum africanum Leaves. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci., 4, 52-57.

[2]   Dutta, A. (1981) Botany for Degree Students. 5th Edition, Oxford University Press, Dellin, 286-288.

[3]   Mailoundama, F. (1993) Nutritional and Socio-Economic Value in Central African Forest. In: Itladikom, et al., Eds., Tropical Forest People and Food: Bio-Cultural Interactions and Applications to Development, Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth.

[4]   Dike, M.C. (2010) Proximate and Nutrient Compositions of Some Fruits, Seeds and Leaves of Some Plant Species at Umudike, Nigeria. ARPN-Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 5, 7-16.

[5]   Ekop, A.S. and Eddy, N.O. (2005) Comparative Studies of the Level of Toxicants in the Seed of Indian Almond (Terminalia catappa) and African Walnut (Coula edulis). Chem. Class J., 2, 74-76.

[6]   AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 200-210.

[7]   Harbone, J.B. (1998) Phytochemical Methods—A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London, 36-89.

[8]   Ekop, A.S. (2007) Determination of Chemical Composition of Gnetum africanum (AFANG) Seed. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6, 40-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2007.40.43

[9]   Mensah, J.K., Okoli, R.I., Ohaju-Obodo, J.O. and Eifidiyi, K. (2008) Phytochemical, Nutritional and Medicinal Properties of Some Leafy Vegetables Consumed by Edo People of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 2305-2308.

[10]   Emedu, P.K. and Anyika, J.U. (2011) Proximate and Mineral Composition of Kale (Brassica oleracea) Grown in Delta State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10, 190-194.

[11]   Ekumankama, I.O. (2008) Nutrient Composition of Indigenous Vegetables (Pterocarpus soyanxii, Pterocarpus santa- licides and Gnetum aficanum). Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences, 29, 195-200.

[12]   Omoyeni A.O. and Aluko, B.T. (2010) Qualitative Determination of Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Cissus petiolata Leaves. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 9, 436-440.

[13]   Iheanacho, K.M.E. and Udebuani, A.C. (2009) Nutritional Composition of Some Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Imo State Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13, 35-38.

[14]   Ogungbele, H.N. (2006) Chemical Composition Functional Properties and Amino Acid Composition of Some Edible Oil Seeds. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 83, 81-86.

[15]   Adepoju, O.T., Onasanya, L.O. and Udoh, C.H. (2006) Comparative Studies of Nutrient Composition of Cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta) Leaf with Some Green Leafy Vegetables. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences, 27, 40-43.

[16]   Akubugwo, I.E., Obasi, N.A., Chinyere, G.C. and Ugbogu, A.E. (2007) Nutritional and Chemical Value of Amaranthus hybridus L. Leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 2833-2839.

[17]   Yisa, J., Egila, J.N. and Darlinton, A.O. (2010) Chemical Composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe Land, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 4106-4109.

[18]   Ogunlade, I.A., Ilugbiyin, A. and Osasona, A.I. (2011) A Comparative Study of Proximate Composition, Anti-Nutrient Composition and Functional Properties of Pachira glabra and Afzelia Africana Seed Flours. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 32-35.

[19]   Akinyeye, R.O., Oluwadunsi, A. and Omoyeni, A. (2010) Proximate, Mineral, Antinutrients, Phyto-Chemical Screening and Amino Acid Compositions of Leaves of Pterocarpus mildbraedi Harms. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 9, 1322-1333.

[20]   Akindahusi, A.A. and Salawu, S.O. (2005) Phytochemical Screening of Nutrients and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Selected Tropical Green Leafy Vegetables. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 497-581.

[21]   Wardlaw, G.M. and Smith, A.M. (2006) Contemporary Nutrition. McGraw-Hill Education, New York, 353-367.

[22]   FAO/WHO (2001) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Bangkok. Food and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, 223-224.

[23]   Chaturvedi, V.C., Shrivastava, R. and Upreti, R.K. (2004) Viral Infections and Trace Elements: A Complex Trace Element. Current Science, 87, 1536-1554.

[24]   Beard, J.L. and Dawson, H.D. (1997) Iron. In: O’Dell, B.L. and Sunde, R.A., Eds., Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Minerals, Marcel Dekker, New York, 275-334.

[25]   Fairbanks, V.F. (1999) Iron in Medicine and Nutrition. In: Shils, M., Olson, J.A., Shike, M. and Ross, A.C., Eds., Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th Edition, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 223-239.

[26]   FAO/WHO (1988) Requirement of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate and Vitamin B12. Report of a Joint Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome, 724.

[27]   Geissler, C.A. and Powers, H.J. (2005) Human Nutrition. 11th Edition. Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone, 236-243.

[28]   Oteng-Gang, K. and Mbachu, J.I. (1990) Changes in the Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Tropical Leafy Vegetables during Traditional Cooing and Local Processing. Journal of Food Chemistry, 23, 9-17.

[29]   Camacho-Corona, M.D.R., Ramirez-Cabrera, M.A., Gonzalez-Santigo, O., Garza-Gonzalez, E., Palacios, I.D.P. and Luna-Herrera, J. (2008) Activity against Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Strains of Plants Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine to Treat Tuberculosis and Other Respiratory Diseases. Phytotherapy Research, 22, 82-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2269

[30]   Al-Bayati, F.A. and Sulaiman, K.D. (2008) In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Salvadora persica L. Extracts against Some Isolated Oral Pathogens in Iraq. Turkish Journal of Biology, 32, 57-62.

[31]   Asaolu, M.F., Oyeyemi, O.A. and Olanlokun, J.O. (2009) Chemical Compositions, Phyto Chemical Constitutents and in vitro Biological Activity of Various Extracts of Cymbopognon citratus. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, 1920-1922.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.1920.1922

 
 
Top