OJGen  Vol.5 No.2 , June 2015
Another Understanding of the Model of Genetic Code Theoretical Analysis
ABSTRACT
At present the model of the genetic code (the code of protein biosynthesis) proposed almost 50 years ago by M. Nirenberg and F. Crick has undergone severe erosion. Tactically, it is true that triplicity and the synonymous degeneracy are unmistakable. But the Nirenberg-Crick postulate about unambiguous coding of amino acids, i.e., the strategy raises reasonable doubt. The reasons to doubt showed up very early: it turned out that the triplet UUU codes both phenylalanine and leucine, which was inconsistent with the declaration of the unambiguity of the DNA-RNA encoding of amino acids in proteins. On the other hand, the ambiguity automatically stems from the Wobble Hypothesis by F. Crick relating to the wobbling of the third nucleotide in codons, (random, undetermined behavior), which means the 3’-5’ codon-anticodon pair is not involved in the encoding, and represents a “steric crutch”. In fact, amino acids are coded not by triplet, but by doublet of nucleotides in a triplet, according to “Two-out-of-Three” rule by Ulf Lagerkvist. From this perspective, the codon families split into two classes: 32 codon-synonym triplets and 32 codon triplets with undetermined coding functions, that is inherent to one of the 32 codons UUU. These “undetermined” codons have called homonyms. They are ambiguous as they potentially and simultaneously encode two different amino acids, or amino acid and the stop function. However, the ambiguity is overcome in real protein biosynthesis. This is due to the sign orientations of ribosomes within mRNA contexts. This is the way the semantics of the codon-homonyms occur, as an exact analogy of the consciousness work in the human languages, abounding with homonyms. This turn in the understanding of the protein code, as actual text formation, leads to a strong idea of the genome as a quasi-intelligent biocomputer structure of living cells. Ignoring this leads to erroneous and dangerous works of genetic engineering, the most important results are Synthia bacteria with synthetic genome and GM foods. Protein biosynthesis is a key, but not the only basic information function of chromosomes. There are other, no less important, holographic and quantum non-locality functions related to morphogenesis. In this plane, the work of the genome, as a quantum biocomputer, occurs on the wave level. Here the main function is regulatory quantum broadcasting of genetic-metabolic information on the intercellular, tissue and organism levels using a coherent photon DNA radiation and its nonlinear vibrational states (sound). DNA information presents itself in the form of dynamically polarized holograms as well as phantom DNA structures. In the interpretation of the quantum work of the genome almost everything is hypothetical. Nevertheless, we have created a laser technology, to some extent simulating “sign wave” states of the genome, and are able to transmit genetic and genetic-metabolic information. Manifestations of phantom DNA (fDNK), which we managed to detect in 1984 but published only in 1991 [Gariaev et al., 1991], are particularly interesting. Now we can produce fDNK with our laser techniques and materialize it as a material structure in the PCR system [Gariaev et al., 2014 (a) Gariaev et al., 2014 (b)], as it was done earlier, but in their own way, by the team of Nobel Prize laureate, Professor Luc Montagnier [Montagnier et al., 2012]. However, back in 2007 and 2009 we demonstrated far-distance quantum transmission of genetic information for pancreas regeneration in rats [Gariaev et al., 2007; Gariaev, 2009]. These data are the basis of Linguistic Wave Genetics (LWG). The practical use of LWG principles is potentially large. So far, we have made precedents of regeneration of teeth, pancreas, and retina with full restoration of vision, cured cystic fibrosis and Down Syndrome, and returned mobility to the paralyzed. LWG provides a method to program stem cells. LWG makes it possible to, in an environmentally friendly way selectively destroy pathogenic bacteria and viruses, insect pests and weeds in agriculture. LWG lays the foundations for quantum computing instead of digital.

Cite this paper
Gariaev, P. (2015) Another Understanding of the Model of Genetic Code Theoretical Analysis. Open Journal of Genetics, 5, 92-109. doi: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.52008.
References
[1]   Gurvich, A.G. (1944) The Theory of the Biological Field. 28.

[2]   Crick, F.H.C. (1966) Codon-Anticodon Pairing. The Wobble Hypothesis, 19, 548-555.

[3]   Crick, F.H.C. (1989) What Mad Pursuit. A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, Inc. Publishers., New York.

[4]   Nirenberg, M. and Krik, F. (1964) T. LXXXII, Nauk. Physics of Our Days.
http://ufn.ru/ufn64/ufn64_1/Russian/r641c.pdf

[5]   Lagerkvist, U. (1978) “Two out of Three”: An Alternative Method for Codon Reading. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 75, 1759-1762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.75.4.1759

[6]   Grinevich, G.S. (2001) Beginnings of Genetic Linguistics. M. Ed. Chronicle. Monograph, 320C.

[7]   Gariaev, P.P., et al. (1991) Hologrphic Associative Memory of Biological Systems, Proceedings SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering. Optical Memory and Neural Networks, 1621, 280-291.

[8]   Adleman, L.M. (1994) Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial Problems. The First DNA Computing Paper. Describes a Solution for the Directed Hamiltonian Path Problem. Science, 266, 1021-1024.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7973651

[9]   Gariaev, P.P., Macedonian, S.N. and Leonova, E.A. (1997) Biocomputer on Genetic Molecules as Reality. Information Technology, 5, 42-46.

[10]   Garyaev, P.P. (1997) Wave Genetic Code. Izdattsentr, Moscow, 107c.

[11]   Garyaev, P.P. (2009) Linguistics Wave Genome. Theory and Practice. Kiev. Monograph. 216 p.

[12]   Garyaev, P.P. (1994) Wave Gene. Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 279 p.

[13]   Ovchinnikov, L.P. (1998) What and How Is Encoded in the mRNA. Moscow State University, Soro-Sovski Educational Journal, No. 4, 10-18.
http://bio.fizteh.ru/student/files/biology/bioarticles/f_4ai2

[14]   Kabat, E.A., et al. (1977) Sequence of Immunoglobulin Chains. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

[15]   Shcherbak, V.I. (2003) Arithmetic inside the Universal Genetic Code. BioSystems, 70, 187-209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0303-2647(03)00066-2

[16]   Garyaev, P.P., et al. (2007) Theoretical Models of Wave Genetics and Reproduction Wave Immunity in the Experiment. New Medical Technologies, New Medical Equipment, No. 11, 26-70.

[17]   Prangishvili, I.V., Garyaev, P.P., et al. (2000) Radiated Emission Spectroscopy Localized Photons: Exit to Quantum Nonlocal Bioinformatic Processes. Sensors and Systems, 9, 2-13.

[18]   Steele, E., Lindley, R. and Blanden, R. (2002) What If Lamarck Rights? Immunogenetics and Evolution. M., Mir, 237 p.

[19]   Nalimov, V.V. (1989) The Spontaneity of Consciousness. Probabilistic Theory of Meaning and the Meaning Architectonics-Leach of. M. Prometheus, 287 p.

[20]   Spinoza, B. (1677) Ethics.

[21]   Gariaev, P.P., Birshtein, B.I., Iarochenko, A.M., Marcer, P.J., Tertishny, G.G., Leonova, K.A. and Kaempf, U. (2001) The DNA-Wave Biocomputer. In: Dubois, D.M., Ed., “CASYS”—International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, CHAOS, Liege, Belgium, 290-310.

[22]   Allison, S.A., Sorlie, S.S. and Pecora, R. (1990) Brownian Dynamics Simulations of Wormlike Chains: Dynamics Light Scattering from 2311 Base Pair DNA Fragments. Macromolecules, 23, 1110-1111.

[23]   Biebricher, C.K., Eigen, M. and Luce, R. (1981) Product Analysis of RNA Generated de Novo by Qb Replicase. Journal of Molecular Biology, 148, 369-390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(81)90182-0

[24]   Gariaev, P. and Pitkanen, M. (2011) Model for the Findings about Hologram Generating Properties of DNA. DNA Decipher Journal, 1, 47-72.
http://scireprints.lu.lv/160/

[25]   Gariaev, P.P., Tertyshniy, G.G. and Tovmash, A.V. (2007) Experimental Studies of in Vitro-Sky Holographic Display and Transfer of DNA Complexed Sinformatsiey Her Environment. New Medical Technology, 9, 42-53.

[26]   Garyaev, P.P., Kokaya, A.A., Mukhina, I.V., Leonova-Garyaeva, E.A. and Kokaya, N.G. (2007) Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Modulated by Biostructures on the Course of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 143, 197-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10517-007-0049-3

[27]   Ostrovsky, Y., Tertyshniy, G.G. and Eventov, V.L. (2014) MANAGEMENT Normalization of Functioning of the Cells of the Organ-ism.
http://hologrammatrix.com/index.php/8-stati/2-up-r-avl-e-nie-n-o-r-m-a-l-i-z-a-ts-i-ej-f-un-kts-ioni-r-ov-a-niya-k-l-e-t-ok-o-rg-a-n-i-z-ma

[28]   Montagnier, L., Lavallee, C. and Aissa, J. (2012) Remote Transmission of Electromagnetic Signals inducing Nanostructures Amplifiable into a Specific DNA Sequence. US Patent No. WO 2012 142565 A2.

[29]   Gariaev, P.P., et al. (2014) Materialization of DNA Fragment in Water through Modulated Electromagnetic Irradiation. Preliminary Report. DNA Decipher Journal, 4, 1-2.

[30]   Gariaev P.P., Kokaya, A.A., Mukhina, I.V., Leonova-Garyaeva, E.A. and Kokaya, N.G. (2007) Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Modulated by Biostructures on the Course of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine Bulletin, 143, 155-158.

[31]   Pitkanen, M. (2010) The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/pdfpool/gari.pdf

[32]   Fermi, E., Pasta, J. and Ulam, S. (1955) Studies of Nonlinear Problems. Physics Report.

[33]   Turanov, A.A., Lobanov, A.V., Fomenko, D.E., Morrison, H.G., Sogin, M.L., Klobutcher, L.A., et al. (2009) Genetic Code Supports Targeted Insertion of Two Amino Acids by One Codon. Science, 323, 259-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1164748

[34]   Garvin A.M., Kenneth, C.P. and Larry, H. (2000) MALDI-TOF Based Mutation Detection Using Tagged in Vitro Synthesized Peptides. Nature Biotechnology, 18, 95-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/72013

[35]   Lolle, S.J., Victor, J.L., Young, J.M. and Pruitt, R.E. (2005) Genome-Wide Non-Mendelian Inheritance of Extra-Genomic Information in Arabidopsis. Nature, 434, 1-4.

[36]   Garyaev, P.P., et al. (2014) Method of Producing PCR Product of DNA Using Wave Replicas of DNA (Genes) and the Device for Its Implementation. 2014/06578. 8 September 2014.

[37]   Gariaev, P.P., et al. (2014) Materialization of DNA Fragment and, Wave Genetics in Theory & Practice. DNA Decipher Journal, 4, 1-56.

 
 
Top