MSA  Vol.6 No.6 , June 2015
Reinforcement of Lignin-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive with Nano-Crystalline Cellulose (NCC): Curing Behavior and Bonding Property of Plywood
Abstract: The curing behavior of lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resin with different contents of nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different heating rates (5, 10 and 20&degC/min) and the bonding property was evaluated by the wet shear strength and wood failure of two-ply plywood panels after soaking in water (48 hours at room temperature and followed by 1-hour boiling). The test results indicated that the NCC content had little influence on the peak temperature, activation energy and the total heat of reaction of LPF resin at 5 and 10&degC/min. But at 20&degC/min, LPF0.00% (LPF resin without NCC) showed the highest total heat of reaction, while LPF0.25% (LPF resin containing 0.25% NCC content) and LPF0.50% (LPF resin containing 0.50% NCC content) gave the lowest value. The wet shear strength was affected by the NCC content to a certain extent. With regard to the results of one-way analysis of variance, the bonding quality could be improved by NCC and the optimum NCC content ranged from 0.25% to 0.50%. The wood failure was also affected by the NCC content, but the trend with respect to NCC content was not clear.
Cite this paper: Liu, Z. , Zhang, Y. , Wang, X. and Rodrigue, D. (2015) Reinforcement of Lignin-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive with Nano-Crystalline Cellulose (NCC): Curing Behavior and Bonding Property of Plywood. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 567-575. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.66060.

[1]   Rowell, R.M. (2005) Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[2]   Pizzi, A. (2003) Chap. 28. In: Pizzi, A., Ed., Handbook of Adhesive Technology, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York.

[3]   Campbell, A.G. and Walsh, A.R. (1985) The Present Status and Potential of Kraft Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Wood Adhesives. Journal of Adhesion, 18, 301-314.

[4]   Wooten, A.L., Sellers Jr., T. and Tahir, P.M. (1988) Reaction of Formaldehyde with Lignin. Forest Products Journal, 38, 45-46.

[5]   Olivares, M., Guzman, J.A., Natho, A. and Saavedra, A. (1988) Kraft Lignin Utilization in Adhesives. Wood Science and Technology, 22, 157-165.

[6]   Klasnja, B. and Kopitovic, S. (1992) Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins as Adhesives in the Production of Plywood. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 50, 282-285.

[7]   Barry, A.O., Peng, W. and Riedl, B. (1993) The Effect of Lignin Content on the Cure Properties of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin as Determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Holzforschung, 47, 247-252.

[8]   Doering, G.A. and Harbor, G. (1993) Lignin Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin. US Patent 5202403.

[9]   Zhao, L.W., Griggs, B.F., Chen, C.L. and Gratzl, J.S. (1994) Utilization of Softwood Kraft Lignin as Adhesive for the Manufacture of Reconstituted Wood. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 14, 127-145.

[10]   Sarkar, S. and Adhikari, B. (2000) Lignin-Modified Phenolic Resin: Synthesis Optimization, Adhesive Strength, and Thermal Stability. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 14, 1179-1193.

[11]   Nada, A.A.M.A., Abou-Youssef, H. and El-Gohary, S.E.M. (2003) Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Modification with Lignin. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 42, 689-699.

[12]   Cetin, N.S. and Ozmen, N. (2003) Studies on Lignin-Based Adhesives for Particleboard Panels. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 27, 183-189.

[13]   Khan, M.A. and Ashraf, S.M. (2005) Development and Characterization of a Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Wood Adhesive Using Coffee Bean Shell. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 19, 493-509.

[14]   El Mansouri, N.E. and Salvado, J. (2006) Structural Characterization of Technical Lignins for the Production of Adhesives: Application to Lignosulfonate, Kraft, Soda-Anthraquinone, Organosolv and Ethanol Process Lignins. Industrial Crops and Products, 24, 8-16.

[15]   Matsushita, Y., Wada, S., Fukushima, K. and Yasuda, S. (2006) Surface Characteristics of Phenol-Formaldehyde-Lignin Resin Determined by Contact Angle Measurement and Inverse Gas Chromatography. Industrial Crops and Products, 23, 115-121.

[16]   Wang, J., Chen, J.Z., Hou, Y. and Shao, C.Q. (2008) Research Progress of Yam Lignin-Phenolic Resin. China Adhesives, 9, 47-49.

[17]   Cavdar, A.D., Kalaycioglu, H. and Hiziroglu, S. (2008) Some of the Properties of Oriented Strandboard Manufactured Using Kraft Lignin Phenolic Resin. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 202, 559-563.

[18]   Wang, M.C., Leitch, M. and Xu, C.B. (2009) Synthesis of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resol Resins Using Organosolv Pine Lignins. European Polymer Journal, 45, 3380-3388.

[19]   Cranston, E.D. and Gray, D.G. (2006) Morphological and Optical Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Incorporating Nanocrystalline Cellulose. Biomacromolecules, 7, 2522-2530.

[20]   Lahiji, R.R., Xu, X., Reifenberger, R., Raman, A., Rudie, A. and Moon, R.J. (2010) Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals. Langmuir, 26, 4480-4488.

[21]   Samir, M.A.S.A., Alloin, F., Sanchez, J.-Y. and Dufresne, A. (2004) Cellulose Nanocrystals Reinforced Poly(oxy- ethylene). Polymer, 45, 4149-4157.

[22]   Lahiji, R.R., Reifenberger, R., Raman, A., Rudie, A. and Moon, R.J. (2008) Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal Surfaces by SPM. NSTI-Nanotech, 2, 704-707.

[23]   Sturcova, A., Davies, G.R. and Eichhorn, S.J. (2005) The Elastic Modulus and Stress-Transfer Properties of Tunicate Cellulose Whiskers. Biomacromolecules, 6, 1055-1061.

[24]   Habibi, Y., Lucia, L.A. and Rojas, O.J. (2010) Cellulose Nanocrystals: Chemistry, Self-Assembly, and Applications. Chemical Review, 110, 3479-3500.

[25]   Favier, V., Chanzy, H. and Cavaille, J.Y. (1995) Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced by Cellulose Whiskers. Macromolecules, 28, 6365-6367.

[26]   Orts, W.J., Shey, J., Imam, S.H., Glenn, G.M., Buttman, M.E. and Revol, J.F. (2005) Application of Cellulose Microfibrils in Polymer Nanocomposites. Journal of Polymer and the Environment, 13, 301-306.

[27]   Noorani, S., Simonsen, J. and Atre, S. (2007) Nano-Enabled Micro-Technology: Polysulfone Nanocomposites Incorporating Cellulose Nanocrystals. Cellulose, 14, 577-584.

[28]   Dalmas, F., Chazeau, L., Cauthier, C., Cavaille, J.Y. and Dendievel, R. (2006) Large Deformation Mechanical Behavior of Flexible Nanofiber Filled Polymer Nanocomposites. Polymer, 47, 2802-2812.

[29]   Samir, M.A.S.A., Alloin, F., Paillet, M. and Dufresne, A. (2004) Tangling Effect in Fibrillated Cellulose Reinforced Nanocomposites. Macromolecules, 37, 4313-4316.

[30]   Petersson, L., Kvien, I. and Oksman, K. (2007) Structure and Thermal Properties of Poly(lactic cid)/Cellulose Whiskers Nanocomposite Materials. Composites Science and Technology, 67, 2535-2544.

[31]   Wang, N., Ding, E. and Cheng, R. (2007) Thermal Degradation Behaviors of Spherical Cellulose Nanocrystals with Sulfate Groups. Polymer, 48, 3486-3493.

[32]   Dufresne, A. and Vignon, M.R. (1998) Improvement of Starch Film Performances Using Cellulose Microfibrils. Macromolecules, 31, 2693-2696.

[33]   Samir, M.A.S.A., Alloin, F., Sanchez, J.-Y., El Kissi, N. and Dufresne, A. (2004) Preparation of Cellulose Whiskers Reinforced Nanocomposites from an Organic Medium Suspension. Macromolecules, 37, 1386-1393.

[34]   Kissinger, H.E. (1957) Reaction Kinetics in Differential Thermal Analysis. Analytical Chemistry, 29, 1702-1706.

[35]   Ozawa, T.J. (1970) Kinetic Analysis of Derivative Curves in Thermal Analysis. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2, 301-324.

[36]   He, G.B. and Yan, N. (2005) Effect of Wood on the Curing Behavior of Commercial Phenolic Resin Systems. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 95, 185-192.

[37]   Lowry, R. (2008) Concepts and Applications of Inferential Statistics. Online Statistic Textbook.