CE  Vol.6 No.11 , June 2015
Creativity as Central to Critical Reasoning and the Facilitative Role of Moral Education: Utilizing Insights from Neuroscience
ABSTRACT
The article will review the literature of updated neuroscientific research in order to gain insights into the centrality to critical reasoning of creativity (understood as creative thinking, including the impulsion of imagination and wonder). Furthermore, it will explore literature that testifies to the credentials of moral education in facilitating the forms of creativity associated with the development of critical reasoning, as suggested by the insights of neuroscience. Finally, the article will review the literature related to earlier empirical evidence of the crucial role that moral education can play in facilitating creativity, imagination and wonder.

Cite this paper
Lovat, T. and Fleming, D. (2015) Creativity as Central to Critical Reasoning and the Facilitative Role of Moral Education: Utilizing Insights from Neuroscience. Creative Education, 6, 1097-1107. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.611108.
References
[1]   ACARA (2013). General Capabilities in the Australian Curriculum. Canberra: Australian Curriculum Reporting and Assessment Authority.
http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/
General%20capabilities.pdf


[2]   Benninga, J., Berkowitz, M., Kuehn, P., & Smith, K. (2006). Character and Academics: What Good Schools Do. Phi Delta Kappan, 87, 448-452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172170608700610

[3]   Berkowitz, M. (2011). What Works in Values Education? International Journal of Educational Research, 50, 153-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2011.07.003

[4]   Bielert, C., & Gallup, A. (2014). A Review of Darcia Narvaez, Kristin Valentino, Augustin Fuentes, James J. McKenna, and Peter Gray (Eds.), Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution: Culture, Childrearing and Social Wellbeing. New York: Oxford University Press. Evolutionary Psychology, 12, 1053-1055.

[5]   Bruer, J. (2006). Points of View: On the Implications of Neuroscience Research for Science Teaching and Learning: Are There Any? A Skeptical Theme and Variations: The Primacy of Psychology in the Science of Learning. CBE Life Sciences Education, 5, 104-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.06-03-0153

[6]   Bruer, J. T. (1997). Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far. Educational Researcher, 26, 4-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X026008004

[7]   Bruer, J. T. (1998). Let’s Put Brain Science on the Back Burner. NASSP Bulletin, 82, 9-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263659808259803

[8]   Bryk, A. (2012). Opening Remarks from the President at the US Professors of the Year Awards Program. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
http://www.usprofessorsoftheyear.org/Winners/Previous_Natl_
Winners/2012RemarksBryk.html


[9]   Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

[10]   Bulkeley, K. (2005). The Wondering Brain: Thinking about Religion with and beyond Cognitive Neuroscience. New York: Routledge.

[11]   Clement, N. D., & Lovat, T. (2012). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Challenges for Curriculum. Curriculum Inquiry, 42, 534-557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-873X.2012.00602.x

[12]   Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M., & Hanson, W. (2003). Advanced Mixed Methods Research Designs. In A. Tashakkori, & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioural Research (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

[13]   DEEWR, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (2008). At the Heart of What We Do: Values Education at the Centre of Schooling. Report of the Values Education Good Practice Schools Project—Stage 2. Melbourne: Curriculum Corporation.
http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/VEGPSP-2_final_3.pdf

[14]   DEST, Department of Education Science and Training (2003). Values Education Study. Executive Summary Final Report, Melbourne: Curriculum Corporation.
http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/
VES_Final_Report14Nov.pdf


[15]   DEST, Department of Education Science and Training (2005). National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training.
http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/Framework_
PDF_version_for_the_web.pdf


[16]   DEST, Department of Education Science and Training (2006). Implementing the National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools. Report of the Values Education Good Practice Schools Project—Stage 1: Final Report, September 2006, Melbourne: Curriculum Corporation.
http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/VEGPS1_FINAL_REPORT_081106.pdf

[17]   Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. New York: The Free Press.

[18]   Dietrich, A. (2004). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Creativity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 1011-1026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03196731

[19]   Doidge, N. (2009). The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science. Melbourne: Scribe Publications.

[20]   Dommett, E. J., Devonshire, I. M., Plateua, C. R., Westwell, M. S., & Greenfield, S. A. (2011). From Neuroscientific Theory to Classroom Practice. The Neuroscientist, 17, 282-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858409356111

[21]   Eslinger, P., Robinson-Long, M., Realmuto, J., Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Tovar-Moll, F., Wang, J., & Yang, Q. X. (2009). Developmental Frontal Lobe Imaging in Moral Judgment: Arthur Benton’s Ensuring Influence 60 Years Later. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 158-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803390802298064

[22]   Fleming, D., & Lovat, T. (2014). When Encounters between Religious Worldviews Are a Threat: Applying Triune Ethics Theory in a Religiously Diverse Landscape. Journal of Moral Education, 43, 377-393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057240.2014.945397

[23]   Fleming, D., & Lovat, T. (2015). Learning as Leaving Home: Fear, Empathy and Hospitality in the Theology Classroom. Teaching Theology and Religion, 18, in Press.

[24]   Friston, K., Ashburner, J., Kiebel, S., Nichols, T., & Penny, W. (2011). Statistical Parametric Mapping: The Analysis of Functional Brain Images. London: Academic Press.

[25]   Gortner, D. (2007). A Review of Kelly Bulkeley, The Wondering Brain: Thinking about Religion with and beyond Cognitive Neuroscience, New York: Routledge (2005). Anglican Theological Review, 89, 493-494.

[26]   Haidt, J. (2010). Moral Psychology Must Not Be Based on Faith and Hope: Commentary on Narvaez. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 182-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691610362352

[27]   Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D., & Maguire, E. (2007). Using Imagination to Understand the Neural Basis of Episodic Memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 14365-14374.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4549-07.2007

[28]   Higgins-D’Alessandro, A. (2011). The Structures of a Liberal Education. Ethos, 10, 4-9.

[29]   Hille, K. (2011). Bringing Research into Educational Practice: Lessons Learned. Mind, Brain, and Education, 5, 63-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-228X.2011.01111.x

[30]   Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511805851

[31]   Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2011). Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43, 98-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00713.x

[32]   Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Damasio, A. R. (2007). We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affect and Social Neuroscience to Education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1, 3-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-228X.2007.00004.x

[33]   Immordino-Yang, M., & Faeth, M. (2010). Building Smart Students: A Neuroscience Perspective on the Role of Emotion and Skilled Intuition in Learning. In D. A. Sousa (Ed.), Mind, Brain, and Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom (pp. 66-81). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

[34]   Jensen, E. (2008). A Fresh Look at Brain-Based Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 89, 409-417.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172170808900605

[35]   Lewis, P. (2010). The Emerging Comprehensive Psychology of Darcia Narvaez. Tradition & Discovery, 37, 9-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5840/traddisc2010/201137332

[36]   Lovat, T. (2010). Synergies and Balance between Values Education and Quality Teaching. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 42, 489-500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2008.00469.x

[37]   Lovat, T. (2011). Values Education and Holistic Learning: Updated Research Perspectives. International Journal of Educational Research, 50, 148-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2011.07.009

[38]   Lovat, T. (2013). Values Education Programs. In J. Hattie, & E. Anderman (Eds.), International Guide to Student Achievement (pp. 279-281). New York: Routledge.

[39]   Lovat, T., & Toomey, R. (Eds.) (2009). Values Education and Quality Teaching: The Double Helix Effect. Dordrecht: Springer.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9962-5

[40]   Lovat, T., Clement, N., Dally, K., & Toomey, R. (2010b). Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance. Cambridge Journal of Education, 40, 213-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2010.504599

[41]   Lovat, T., Clement, N., Dally, K., & Toomey, R. (2010c). Values Education as Holistic Development for All Sectors: Researching for Effective Pedagogy. Oxford Review of Education, 36, 1-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2010.501141

[42]   Lovat, T., Clement, N., Dally, K., & Toomey, R. (2011a). The Impact of Values Education on School Ambience and Academic Diligence. International Journal of Educational Research, 50, 166-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2011.07.008

[43]   Lovat, T., Dally, K., Clement, N., & Toomey, R. (2011b). Values Pedagogy and Student Achievement: Contemporary Research Evidence. Dordrecht: Springer.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1563-9

[44]   Lovat, T., Toomey, R., & Clement, N. (Eds.) (2010a). International Research Handbook on Values Education and Student Wellbeing. Dordrecht: Springer.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8675-4

[45]   Lovat, T., Toomey, R., Dally, K., & Clement, N. (2009). Project to Test and Measure the Impact of Values Education on Student Effects and School Ambience. Report for the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) by the University of Newcastle, Australia, Canberra: DEEWR.
http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/Project_to_Test_
and_Measure_the_Impact_of_Values_Education.pdf


[46]   MCEETYA (2008). Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Melbourne: Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training & Youth Affairs. www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/National_Declaration_on_the_
Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf


[47]   McGilchrist, I. (2009). The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

[48]   Meltzoff, A., Kuhl, P., Movellan, J., & Sejnowski, T. (2009). Foundations for a New Science of Learning. Science, 325, 284-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1175626

[49]   Narvaez, D. (2008). Triune Ethics: The Neurobiological Roots of Our Multiple Moralities. New Ideas in Psychology, 26, 95-119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.07.008

[50]   Narvaez, D. (2010). The Emotional Foundations of High Moral Intelligence. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2010, 77-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cd.276

[51]   Narvaez, D. (2013). Neurobiology and Moral Mindset. In K. Heinrichs, F. Oser, & T. Lovat (Eds.), Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications (pp. 323-342). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-275-4_19

[52]   Narvaez, D. (2014). Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality: Evolution, Culture, and Wisdom. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

[53]   Narvaez, D., Panksepp, J., Schore, A. N., & Gleason, T. R. (2013). Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development: From Research to Practice and Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[54]   Narvaez, D., Valentino, K., Fuentes, A., McKenna, J., & Gray, P. (Eds.) (2014). Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution: Culture, Childrearing and Social Wellbeing. New York: Oxford University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964253.001.0001

[55]   Newmann, F. (2013). Muzzling Minds All over the Globe While Trumpeting Higher Order Skills.
http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/tag/fred-newmann/

[56]   Newmann, F. M., & Associates (1996). Authentic Achievement: Restructuring Schools for Intellectual Quality. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

[57]   Nucci, L., & Narvaez, D. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of Moral and Character Education. New York: Routledge.

[58]   Peters, R. S. (1981). Moral Development and Moral Education. London: George Allen & Unwin.

[59]   Raichle, M. E. (2009). A Brief History of Human Brain Mapping. Trends in Neurosciences, 32, 118-126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2008.11.001

[60]   Rosiek, J., & Beghetto, R. (2009). Emotional Scaffolding: The Emotional and Imaginative Dimensions of Teaching and Learning. In P. Schutz, & M. Zembylas (Eds.), Advances in Teacher Emotion Research: The Impact on Teachers’ Lives (pp. 175-194). Dordrecht: Springer.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0564-2_9

[61]   Rowe, K. (2004). In Good Hands? The Importance of Teacher Quality. Educare News, 149, 4-14.

[62]   Sajjadi, S. M. (2008). Religious Education and Information Technology: Challenges and Problems. Teaching Theology and Religion, 11, 185-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9647.2008.00469.x

[63]   Schrag, F. (2011). Does Neuroscience Matter for Education? Educational Theory, 61, 221-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2011.00401.x

[64]   Snook, I. (2012). Educational Neuroscience: A Plea for Radical Scepticism. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 445-449.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2011.00831.x

[65]   Srinivasan, N. (2007). Cognitive Neuroscience of Creativity: EEG Based Approaches. Science Direct, 42, 109-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2006.12.008

[66]   Varma, S., McCandliss, B., & Schwartz, D. (2008). Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience. Educational Researcher, 37, 140-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X08317687

[67]   Wegerif, R., McLaren, B. M., Chamrada, M., Scheuer, O., Mansour, N., Mik?átko, J., & Williams, M. (2010). Exploring Creative Thinking in Graphically Mediated Synchronous Dialogues. Computers & Education, 54, 613-621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.10.015

[68]   Weisberg, D., Keil, F., Goodstein, G., Rawson, E., & Gray, J. (2008). The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 470-477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2008.20040

 
 
Top