Back
 AJIBM  Vol.5 No.6 , June 2015
Environmental Effects of the Open Cast Mining a Case Study: Irbid Area, North Jordan
Abstract: Jordan has huge limestone reserves which are used to produce aggregates for construction purposes. These reserves are very important economic sectors in Jordan, but many of these reserves belong to quarries that are located near urban territories. The mining operation type is mainly open cast and this activity has fugitive dust sources that contribute to increasing air quality levels in the urban areas around the quarries. Many of the biggest quarries in Jordan surrounded with urban territories are located in the north of Jordan district Irbid (Sammad area). Due to the quarrying activities, especially those from limestone quarrying (e.g. drilling and blasting, excavation, and transportation) in North Irbid, it is noticed that there is a primary source of an increased level of particulate matter (PM10), which leads to a potential representing pollution to the surrounding areas. PM consists of very small liquid and solid particles floating in the air with a diameter less than 10 microns that are subject to be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lung, and subsequently cause harmful health problems for population. PM10 dust re-suspension factors of the surrounding areas near the limestone quarries close to Sammad area/Irbid province were measured for different seasons at two station areas: Shatana and Rahma. To obtain data and assessment of the impact from this source, measurements included PM10 mass, particle size distributions, wind speed, and wind direction. The results showed that PM10 concentrations could be as high as 130 μg/m3, and that most of the airborne PM was in the coarse fraction. The results revealed that in winter season during the workday, the concentration of PM10 was equal to or below the Jordanian standard, while in summer season during workday the concentration of PM10 was over the Jordanian standard. However, forward trajectories showed that pollutants were attributed to the mining activities inside the quarries and distributed outside the mining area surrounding with urban territories.
Cite this paper: Titi, A. , Dweirj, M. and Tarawneh, K. (2015) Environmental Effects of the Open Cast Mining a Case Study: Irbid Area, North Jordan. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5, 404-423. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.56041.
References

[1]   Tarawneh, K., Al-Thyabat, S. and Al Harahsheh (2007) Mineralogical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Limestone Rocks in Ma’an Area, South Jordan. 50 Years. Annual of the University of Mining and Geology St. Ivan Rilski, Sofia-Bulgaria. Part 1. Geology and Geophysics, 50, 123-128.

[2]   Mining Sector in Jordan (2014) Annual Report of Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Natural Resources Authority, Jordan. Vol., 12, 5-15.

[3]   Jordanian Ambient Air Quality Standards (JS-1140/2006).

[4]   Abu Allaban, M. and El Khalili, M. (2014) Antiquity Impact of Air Pollution at Gadara, Jordan. Mediternian archaelogy and archeometry, 14, 191-199.

[5]   Kampa, M. and Castanas, E. (2008) Human Health Effects of Air Pollution. Environmental Pollution, 151, 362-367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.012

[6]   Chang, T. and Gross, T. (2014) Particulate Pollution and the Productivity of Pear Packers.

[7]   Zivin, J.S.G. and Neidell, M.J. (2014) The Impact of Pollution on Worker Productivity.

[8]   Greenstone, M. and Looney, A. (2011) We Are What We Breathe: The Impacts of Air Pollution on Employment and Productivity.

[9]   Wyon, D. (2014) The Effects of Indoor Air Quality on Performance and Productivity.

[10]   Kosonen, R. and Tan, F. (2004) The Effect of Perceived Indoor Air Quality on Productivity Loss. Energy and Buildings, 36, 981-986.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.06.005

[11]   Wargocki, P., Wyon, D.P. and Fanger, P.O. (2000) Productivity Is Affected by the Air Quality in Offices. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings, 1, 635-640.

[12]   Choi, J., Park, Y. and Park, J. (2015) Development of an Aggregate Air Quality Index a PCA-Based Method: A Case Study of the US Transportation Sector. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5, 53-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajibm.2015.52007

[13]   Kyrkilis, G., Chaloulakou, A. and Kassomenos, P.A. (2007) Development of an Aggregate Air Quality Index for an Urban Mediterranean Agglomeration: Relation to Potential Health Effects. Environment International, 33, 670-676.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.01.010

[14]   Han, B., Bai, Z., Ji, H., Guo, G., Wang, F., Shi, G. and Li, X. (2009). Chemical Characterizations of PM10 Fraction of Paved Road Dust in Anshan, China. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14, 599-603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2009.07.010

[15]   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2004) AP 42 Section 11.19.2 Emission Factors. Crushed Stone Processing and Pulverized Mineral Processing, Update 2004, August.

 
 
Top