OJE  Vol.5 No.6 , June 2015
Application of the Green Revolution Game
Abstract: The Green Revolution Game is employed in teaching in various universities. Here we review employment in two universities: the Karlsruhe University in Germany and the Ohio University in the US. The game is used not only as simulation, but also as basis to generate data for study projects. In this context, several aspects will be followed: the analysis of education approaches (including between real and virtual), the analysis of the employability of game theory for simulating hazards connected to water scarcity in the cultivation of rice, and the connection to real life situations, targeting at the transferability of this game thought for India for the situation in Italy where high yield rice and turning towards (urban) agriculture came decades later. The site considered in Italy is the one making 95% of production, Pavia. Rice fields are artificial wetlands, and consideration is given to which kind of agriculture can conserve biodiversity and lead to sustainability.
Cite this paper: Bostenaru Dan, M. (2015) Application of the Green Revolution Game. Open Journal of Ecology, 5, 274-286. doi: 10.4236/oje.2015.56022.

[1]   Confalonieri, R. and Bocchi, S. (2005) Evaluation of CropSyst for Simulating the Yield of Flooded Rice in Northern Italy. European Journal of Agronomy, 23, 315-326.

[2]   Takaya, Y., Kyuma, K. and Kawaguchi, K. (1974) Rice Cultivation and Its Environmental Conditions in the Mediterranean Countries I. Climate and Physiography in Relation to Rice Cultivation. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 20, 209-223.

[3]   Scudo, K.Z. (2006) The Greenways of Pavia: innovations in Italian landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 76, 112-133.

[4]   Stan, A. (2014) The Landscape of the Urban Peripheries: An Alternative Therapy. In: Craciun, C. and Bostenaru Dan, M., Eds., Planning and Designing Sustainable and Resilient Landscapes, Springer Geography, Dordrecht, 117-126.

[5]   Karpouzas, D.G., Ribarbelli, C., Pastori, M. and Capri, E. (2006) Landscape Risk Analysis for Pesticides Applied to Rice Paddies. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 26, 167-177.

[6]   Cerghit, I. (2006) Metode de invatamant. Polirom, Jassy.

[7]   Chapman, G.P. (1973) The Green Revolution: A Gaming Simulation. The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers), 5, 129-140.

[8]   Corbridge, S. (1985) The Green Revolution Game. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 9, 171-175.

[9]   Ahlqvist, A. (2011) Converging Themes in Cartography and Computer Games. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 38, 278-285.

[10]   Munshi, K. (2004) Social Learning in a Heterogeneous Population: Technology Diffusion in the Indian Green Revolution. Journal of Development Economics, 73, 185-213.

[11]   Bostenaru Dan, M., Aldea Mendes, D. and Panagopoulos, T. (2013) Assessing the Costs of Hazards Mitigation in the Urban Structure. Journal of Biourbanism, III, 51-68.

[12]   Brückner, T. (1998) Ein WWW Basiertes Lernsystem zum Thema Internet (Diploma Work). University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe.

[13]   Russell, P. (2001) Creating Place in the Virtual Design Studio. In: Russell, P., Ed., CAAD Futures, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 231-242.

[14]   Hughes, B. (1999) Dust or Magic. Secrets of Successful Multimedia Design (Reprinted as Creative Work in The Digital Age). Addison-Wesley, Harlow.

[15]   Dikigoropoulou, L. and Bouratoglou, J. (2014) Global Interaction into the Traditional Design Studios through Blogs. 4th Annual International Conference on Architecture, Athens, 7-10 July 2014, 7-10.

[16]   Bouratoglou, J., Dikigoropoulou, L., Dubon, G., Bostenaru Dan, M. and Doczy, P. (2015) Research by Design in the Architecture of Spa-S. Argument, 7. (Section: from the works of students)

[17]   Bostenaru Dan, M. (2015) “Hard Copy” Building Model versus Digital Webpage Serving the Representation of Concepts in Architecture Design and in Scenographic Design. Review of European Studies, 7, 210-228.

[18]   Popa, A. (2014) Decoding Agricultural Landscape. In: Craciun, C. and Bostenaru Dan, M., Eds., Planning and Designing Sustainable and Resilient Landscapes, Springer Geography, Dordrecht, 33-41.

[19]   Nothelfer, U. (2008) Landschaftsarchitekturausbildung—Zwischen Topos und topologischem Denken: Medienpa-dagogische Grundzüge eines webbasierten Fernstudiums, orientiert an signifikanten Lern-und Lehrerfahrungen in der Landschaftsarchitekturausbildung seit ihren Ursprüngen (after a PhD work at the University of Kaiserslautern). Der Andere Verlag, Lübeck.

[20]   Fetzer, E. (2014) Knowledge Building in Landscape Architecture: A Pedagogical Action Research Study with International Online Seminars. Kassel University Press, Kassel.

[21]   Poplin, A. (2012) Playful Public Participation in Urban Planning: A Case Study for Online Serious Games. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (CEUS), 36, 195-206.

[22]   Stan, A. (2014) The City’s Creative Writing: From Morphology to Virtual Landscape. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, 901-905.

[23]   Tesio, F., Tabacchi, M., Cerioli, S. and Follis, F. (2014) Sustainable Hybrid Rice Cultivation in Italy. A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34, 93-102.

[24]   Sali, G. and Monaco, F. (2014) Irrigation Water Resource in a Rice-Growing Area: Economic Evaluation under Different Pricing Conditions. In: Sali, G. and Monaco, F., Eds., Agricultural Cooperative Management and Policy: New Robust, Reliable and Coherent Modelling Tools, Springer, Dordrecht, 23-40.

[25]   Bocchi, S. and Malgioglio, A. (2010) Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice Area in Northern Italy. International Journal of Agronomy, 2010, Article ID: 152158.

[26]   Rubino, F.M., Mandic-Rajcevic, S., Ariano, E., Alegakis, A., Bogni, M., Brambilla, G., De Paschale, G., Firmi, A., Minoia, C., Micoli, G., Savi, S., Sottani, C., Somaruga, C., Turci, R., Vellere, F., Tsatsakis, A. and Colosio, C. (2012) Farmers’ Exposure to Herbicides in North Italy: Assessment under Real-Life Conditions in Small-Size Rice and Corn Farms. Toxicology Letters, 210, 189-197.

[27]   Sparacino, A.C., Tano, F., Ferro, R., Ditto, D., Riva, N. and Braggio, R. (2002) Effects of Water Management and Herbicide Treatments on Red Rice Control. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, 67, 441-449.

[28]   Mihaila, M. (2011) Wine Tourism—Architecture and Landscape. In: Dabija, A.M., Ed., Urban Space-Architectural Space—Interior Space, Chapter Urban Space, EUIM—Ion Mincu University Publishing House, Bucharest, 41-48.

[29]   Mihaila, M. and Banica, C. (2014) Wine Regions and Wine Tourism. Integrated Wine Architecture for Romania. International Conference on the Role of Tourism in Territorial Development, Faculty of Geography, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Gheorgheni, 10 October 2014, 98-107.

[30]   O’Carroll, C., Scholz, B., Nogueira, M.M., Avellis, G., Marin, L., Bostenaru Dan, M., Chmielowski, R., di Trapani, A. and Theodoridou, M. (2014) Careers: Virtual Mobility Can Drive Equality. Nature, 511, 292.

[31]   Kiley-Worthington, M. (2014) Ecological Agriculture. Integrating Low Input, High Productive Farming with Wildlife Conservation. Results from the Experimental Farm La Combe, Drome France. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 744-763.

[32]   Fasola, M. (1983) Nesting Populations of Herons in Italy Depending on Feeding Habitats. Bolletino di Zoologia, 50, 1-2, 21-24.

[33]   Thomas, P., Martin, P. and Boutin, C. (2011) Bush, Bugs, and Birds; Interdependency in a Farming Landscape. Open Journal of Ecology, 1, 9-23.

[34]   Hernandez-Delgado, E., Mercado-Molina, A., Alejandro-Camis, P., Candelas-Sanchez, F., Fonseca-Miranda, J., Gonzalez-Ramos, C., Guzman-Rodriguez, R., Mege, P., Montanez-Acuna, A., Maldonado, I., Otano-Cruz, A. and Suleiman-Ramos, S. (2014) Community-Based Coral Reef Rehabilitation in a Changing Climate: Lessons Learned from Hurricanes, Extreme Rainfall, and Changing Land Use Impacts. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 918-944.

[35]   Joshi, R., Singh, J. and Vig, A.P. (2015) Vermicompost as an Effective Organic Fertilizer and Biocontrol Agent: Effect on Growth, Yield and Quality of Plants. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 14, 137-159.

[36]   Prashar, P., Kapoor, N. and Sachdeva, S. (2014) Rhizosphere: Its Structure, Bacterial Diversity and Significance. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 13, 63-77.

[37]   Verma, J.P., Jaiswal, D.K. and Sagar, R. (2014) Pesticide Relevance and Their Microbial Degradation: A-State-of-Art. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 13, 429-466.

[38]   Suthar, S. (2011) Utilizing Livestock Waste Solids as Bioresource for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Report from Rural India. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 10, 193-197.

[39]   Kanfany, G., El-Namaky, R., Ndiaye, K., Traore, K. and Ortiz, R. (2014) Assessment of Rice Inbred Lines and Hybrids under Low Fertilizer Levels in Senegal. Sustainability, 6, 1153-1162.

[40]   Bonicatto, M.M., Marasas, M.E., Sarandona, S. and Pochettino, M.L. (2015) Seed Conservation by Family Farmers in the Rural-Urban Fringe Area of La Plata Region, Argentina: The Dynamics of an Ancient Practice. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39, 625-646.

[41]   Luo, Y., Fu, H. and Traore, S. (2014) Biodiversity Conservation in Rice Paddies in China: Toward Ecological Sustainability. Sustainability, 6, 6107-6124.

[42]   Yuan, Z., Lun, F., He, L., Cao, Z., Min, Q., Bai, Y., Liu, M., Cheng, S., Li, W. and Fuller, A.M. (2014) Exploring the State of Retention of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in a Hani Rice Terrace Village, Southwest China. Sustainability, 6, 4497-4513.

[43]   Rabbani, G., Rahman, S.H. and Faulkner, L. (2013) Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh. Sustainability, 5, 1510-1521.

[44]   Pray, C., Nagarajan, L., Li, L., Huang, J., Hu, R., Selvaraj, K.N., Napasintuwong, O. and Chandra Babu, R. (2011) Potential Impact of Biotechnology on Adaption of Agriculture to Climate Change: The Case of Drought Tolerant Rice Breeding in Asia. Sustainability, 3, 1723-1741.

[45]   Chen, Q., Zhang, J., and Zhang, L. (2015) Risk Assessment, Partition and Economic Loss Estimation of Rice Production in China, Sustainability, 7, 563-583.

[46]   Ruhul Amin, Md., Zhang, J. and Yang, M. (2015) Effects of Climate Change on the Yield and Cropping Area of Major Food Crops: A Case of Bangladesh. Sustainability, 7, 898-915.