MSCE  Vol.3 No.7 , July 2015
Synthesis of Cu Doped ZnO Nanoparticles: Crystallographic, Optical, FTIR, Morphological and Photocatalytic Study
Abstract: Nanoparticles of Zn1-xCuxO system with nominal compositions x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 were prepared by co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural, morphological, optical and chemical species of grown crystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. XRD analysis confirms that all samples have hexagonal structure with no impurity phases which suggest that Cu ion successfully incorporated into the regular ZnO crystal structure. The lattice parameters, volume of unit cell, X-ray density, atomic packing fraction, c/a ratio, and grain size were calculated from XRD pattern of pure and Cu doped ZnO samples and it was found that the grain size was in the range of 23 nm to 29 nm. The strain in pure and Cu doped ZnO samples was calculated by W-H analysis. Optical properties of Zn1-xCuxO samples were studied by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Optical absorption spectra show that the band gap decreases with increasing Cu contents. The functional group and chemical interactions of Zn1-xCuxO samples were also determined at various peaks using FTIR data and observed that the functional groups corresponding to the Zn-O bands in the samples. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were investigated by oxidation of methylene blue under UV light illumination in batch reactor. The scavenger study was carried out to find out main reactive species responsible for the degradation of dyes.
Cite this paper: Labhane, P. , Huse, V. , Patle, L. , Chaudhari, A. and Sonawane, G. (2015) Synthesis of Cu Doped ZnO Nanoparticles: Crystallographic, Optical, FTIR, Morphological and Photocatalytic Study. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 3, 39-51. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.37005.

[1]   Xia, S.S., Zha, L., Leng, X.N., Lang, X.Y. and Lian, J.S. (2014) Synthesis of Amorphous TiO2 Modified ZnO Nanorod Film with Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties. Applied Surface Science, 299, 97-104.

[2]   Kundu, S. (2014) A Facile Route for the Formation of Shape Selective ZnO Nanoarchitectures with Superior Photocatalytic Activity. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects, 446, 199-212.

[3]   Huang, J., Yin, Z.G. and Zheng, Q.D. (2011) Applications of ZnO in Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells. Energy & Environmental Science, 4, 3861-3877.

[4]   Xu, F. and Sun, L.T. (2011) Solution-Derived ZnO Nanostructures for Photoanodes of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Energy & Environmental Science, 4, 818-841.

[5]   Wang, P.-P., Qi, Q., Xuan, R.-F., Zha, J., Zhou, L.-J. and Li, G.-D. (2013) A Facile Method for Enhancing the Sensing Performance of Zinc Oxide Nanofibers Gas Sensors. RSC Advances, 3, 19853-19856.

[6]   Alenezi, M.R., Henley, S.J., Emerson, N.G. and Silva, S.R.P. (2014) From 1D and 2D Nanostructures to 3D Hierarchical Structures with Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties. Nanoscale, 6, 235-247.

[7]   Qin, Y., Wang, X.D. and Wang, Z.L. (2008) Microfiber-Nanowire Hybrid Structure for Energy Scavenging. Nature, 451, 809-813.

[8]   Song, H.S., Zhang, W.J., Cheng, C., Tang, Y.B., Luo, L.B., Chen, X., Luan, C.Y., Meng, X.M., Zapien, J.A., Wang, N., Lee, C.S., Bello, I. and Lee, S.T. (2011) Controllable Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Radial ZnO Nanowire/Silicon Microrod Hybrid Architectures. Crystal Growth & Design, 11, 147-153.

[9]   Xie, Y.P., He, Y.P., Irwin, P.L., Jin, T. and Shi, X.M. (2011) Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Campylobacter jejuni. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 2325-2331.

[10]   Fageria, P., Gangopadhyay, S. and Pande, S. (2014) Synthesis of ZnO/Au and ZnO/Ag Nanoparticles and Their Photocatalytic Application Using UV and Visible Light. RSC Advances, 4, 24962-24972.

[11]   Wu, D.W., Huang, Z.B., Yin, G.G., Ya, Y.D., Lia, X.M., Han, D., Huang, X. and Gu, J.W. (2012) Preparation, Structure and Properties of Mn-Doped ZnO Rod Arrays. CrystEngComm, 12, 192-198.

[12]   Kaur, J., Kotnala, R.K., Gupta, V. and Verma, K.C. (2014) Anionic Polymerization in Co and Fe Doped ZnO: Nanorods, Magnetism and Photoactivity. Current Applied Physics, 14, 749-756.

[13]   Kuriakose, S., Satpatib, B. and Mohapatra, S. (2014) Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Co Doped ZnO Nanodisks and Nanorods Prepared by a Facile Wet Chemical Method. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16, 12741-12749.

[14]   Li, L., Wang, W., Liu, H., Liu, X., Song, Q. and Ren, S. (2009) First Principles Calculations of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Properties of Cr-Doped ZnO. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113, 8460-8464.

[15]   Ahmad, M., Ahmed, E., Zhang, Y.W., Khalid, N.R., Xu, J.F., Ullah, M. and Hong, Z.L. (2013) Preparation of Highly Efficient Al-Doped ZnO Photocatalyst by Combustion Synthesis. Current Applied Physics, 13, 4697-704.

[16]   Zhong, J.B., Li, J.Z., He, X.Y., Zeng, J., Lu, Y., Hu, W. and Lin, K. (2012) Improved Photocatalytic Performance of Pd-Doped ZnO. Current Applied Physics, 12, 998-1001.

[17]   Ca, F.-F., Xin, S., Guo, Y.-G. and Wan, L.-J. (2011) Wet Chemical Synthesis of Cu/TiO2 Nanocomposites with Integrated Nano-Current Collectors as High Rate Anode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 13, 2014-2020.

[18]   Karimi, M., Ezzati, M., Akbari, S. and Behtaj Lejbini, M. (2013) ZnO Microparticles, ZnO Nanoparticles and Zn0.9Cu0.1O Nanoparticles toward Ethanol Vapour Sensing: A Comparative Study. Current Applied Physics, 13, 1758- 1764.

[19]   Choudhary, B., Chawla, S., Jayanthi, K., Sood, K.N. and Singh, S. (2010) Synthesis and Surface Modification of ZnO:Cu Nanoparticles by Silica and PMMA. Current Applied Physics, 10, 3807-3812.

[20]   Hegazy, A. and Prouzet, E. (2013) Effect of Physical Chemistry Parameters in Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanocrystals. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 16, 651-659.

[21]   Guo, S.-Q., Zhang, X., Zhou, Z., Ga, G.-D. and Liu, L. (2014) Facile Preparation of Hierarchiral Nb2O5 Microspheres with Photocatalytic Activities and Electrochemical Properties. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2, 9236-9243.

[22]   Yu, Y., Zhang, L.Y., Wang, J., Yang, Z., Long M.C., Hu, N.T. and Zhang, Y.F. (2012) Preparation of Hollow Porous Cu2O Microspheres and Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light Irradiation. Nanoscale Research Letters, 7, 347.

[23]   Sreethawong, T., Ngamsinlapasathian, S. and Yoshikawa, S. (2013) Synthesis of Crystalline Mesoporous-Assembled ZrO2 Nanoparticles via a Facile Surfactant-Aided Sol-Gel Process and Their Photocatalytic Dye Degradation Activity. Chemical Engineering Journal, 228, 256-262.

[24]   Kant, S. and Kumar, A. (2012) A Comparative Analysis of Structural, Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of ZnO and Ni Doped ZnO Nanospheres Prepared by Sol-Gel Method. Advanced Materials Letters, 3, 350-354.

[25]   Zhong, J.B., Li, J.Z., He, X.Y., Zeng, J., Lu, Y., Hu, W. and Lin, K. (2012) Improved Photocatalytic Performance of Pd-Doped ZnO. Current Applied Physics, 12, 998-1001.

[26]   Fujishima, A. and Zhang, X.T. (2006) Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis: Present Situation and Future Approaches. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 9, 750-760.

[27]   Menon, A.S., Kalarikkal, N. and Thomas, S. (2013) Studies on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO and Mn- Doped ZnO Nanopowders. Indian Journal of NanoScience, 1, 16-24.

[28]   Abdeen, A.M., Hemeda, O.M., Assem, E.E. and El-Sehly, M.M. (2002) Structural, Electrical and Transport Phenomena of Co Ferrite Substituted by Cd. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 238, 75-83.

[29]   Tural, B., Betül Sopac1, S., Ozkan, N., Demir, A.S. and Volkan, M. (2011) Preparation and Characterization of Surface Modified γ-Fe2O3 (Maghemite)-Silica Nanocomposites Used for the Purification of Benzaldehyde Lyase. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 72, 968-973.

[30]   Stokes, A.R. and Wilson, A.J.C. (1944) The Diffraction of X Rays by Distorted Crystal Aggregates-I, Proceedings of the Physical Society, 56, 174.

[31]   The, C.M. and Mohamed, A.R. (2011) Roles of Titanium Dioxide and Ion-Doped Titanium Dioxide on Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants (Phenolic Compounds and Dyes) in Aqueous Solutions: A Review. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509, 1648-1660.

[32]   Rauf, M.A., Meetani, M.A. and Hisaindee, S. (2011) An Overview on the Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes in the Presence of TiO2 Doped with Selective Transition Metals. Desalination, 276, 13-27.

[33]   Aboukais, A., Abi-Aad, E. and Tauk, B. (2012) Supported Manganese Oxide on TiO2 for Total Oxidation of Toluene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Characterization and Catalytic Activity. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 142, 564-571.