PST  Vol.3 No.2 , April 2015
Non-Operative Management of Hip Osteoarthritis
Author(s) Ray Marks1,2*
This paper reviews several non-operative and non-pharmacologic management strategies advocated for alleviating the pain and disability experienced by people with hip osteoarthritis. It analyzes whether painful debilitating hip osteoarthritis, which has no effective cure and is often progressive, may be affected positively by non-operative interventions designed to control osteoarthritis pain. Finally, it provides an integrated plan of management for ameliorating hip osteoarthritis pain and disability in light of this knowledge.

Cite this paper
Marks, R. (2015) Non-Operative Management of Hip Osteoarthritis. Pain Studies and Treatment, 3, 7-22. doi: 10.4236/pst.2015.32002.
[1]   Moskowitz, R.W. and Goldberg, V.M. (1988) Osteoarthritis. In Schumacher Jr., H.R., Ed., Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta, 171-176.

[2]   Mankin, H.J. and Treadwell, B.V. (1986) Osteoarthritis: A 1986 Update. Bulletin of the Rheumatic Diseases, 36, 173- 182.

[3]   Lawrence, R.C., Hochberg, M.C., Kelsey, J.L., McDuffie, F.C., Medsger Jr., T.A., Felts, W.R. and Shulman, L.E. (1989) Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Arthritic and Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States. Journal of Rheumatology, 16, 427-441.

[4]   Simon, L.S. (2000) Osteoarthritis: A Review. Clinical Cornerstone, 2, 26-37.

[5]   Sack, K.E. (1995) Osteoarthritis. A Continuing Challenge. Western Journal of Medicine, 163, 579-586.

[6]   Yelin, E. (1989) Impact of Musculoskeletal Conditions on the Elderly. Geriatric Medicine Today, 8, 103-118.

[7]   Rudd, E. (1985) Physiatric Management of Osteoarthritis. Clinics in the Rheumatic Diseases, 11, 433-445.

[8]   Rehman, Q. and Lane, N.E. (1999) Getting Control of Osteoarthritis Pain. An Update on Treatment Options. Postgraduate Medicine, 106, 127-134.

[9]   Ling, S.M. and Bathon, J.M. (1998) Osteoarthritis in Older Adults. Journal of the American Society of Geriatrics, 46, 216-225.

[10]   Abyad, A. and Boyer, J.T. (1992) Arthritis and Aging. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 4, 153-159.

[11]   MacFarlane, D. (1992) Osteoarthritis. The Practitioner, 236, 1061-1065.

[12]   Dieppe, P. (1990) Some Recent Approaches to Arthritis Research. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 20, 2-11.

[13]   Schnitzer, T.J. (1993) Osteoarthritis Treatment Update: Minimizing Pain While Limiting Patient Risk. Postgraduate Medicine, 93, 89-95.

[14]   Felson, D.T. (1993) The Course of Osteoarthritis and Factors That Affect It. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 19, 607-615.

[15]   Griffin, M.R., Brandt, K.D., Liang, M.H., Pincus, T. and Ray, W.A. (1995) Practical Management of Osteoarthritis. Integration of Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Measures. Archives of Family Medicine, 4, 1049-1055.

[16]   Brooks, P.M. and Day, R.O. (1991) Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs: Differences and Similarities. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 1716-1725.

[17]   Tsang, I.K. (1995) Update on Osteoarthritis. Canadian Family Physician, 36, 539-541.

[18]   Grimmer, K. (1992) A Controlled Double Blind Study Comparing the Effects of Strong Burst Mode TENS and High Rate TENS on Painful Osteoarthritic Knees. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 38, 49-56.

[19]   Lewis, B., Lewis, D. and Cumming, G. (1994) The Comparative Analgesic Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug for Painful Osteoarthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology, 33, 455-460.

[20]   Smith, C.R., Lewith, G.T. and Machin, D. (1983) TNS and Osteo-Arthritic Pain: Preliminary Study to Establish a Controlled Method of Assessing Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation as a Treatment for the Pain Caused by Osteoarthrosis of the Knee. Physiotherapy, 69, 266-268.

[21]   Marks, R. (1993) Muscles as a Pathogenic Factor in Osteoarthritis. Physiotherapy Canada, 79, 13-18.

[22]   Marks, R. (1992) Peripheral Articular Mechanisms in Pain Production in Osteoarthritis. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 38, 289-298.

[23]   Zimmerman, M. (1989) Pain Mechanisms and Mediators in Osteoarthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 18, 22-29.

[24]   Leivseth, G., Torstensson, J. and Reikeras, O. (1989) Effect of Passive Muscle Stretching in Osteoarthritis of the Hip. Clinical Science, 76, 113-117.

[25]   Langeland, N. (1972) Conservative Treatment with Active Exercises in Osteoarthritis of the Hip. Acta Orthopedica Scandinavica, 43, 118-125.

[26]   King, A.C., Ahles, T.A., Martin, J.E. and White, R. (1984) EMG Biofeedback Controlled Exercise in Chronic Arthritic Knee Pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 65, 341-343.

[27]   Marks, R. (1992) Physical Modalities and Articular Cartilage Repair. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 20, 17- 20.

[28]   Dieppe, P. (1993) Management of Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee Joints. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 5, 487- 493.

[29]   Estes, J.P., Bochenek, C. and Fasler, P. (2000) Osteoarthritis of the Fingers. Journal of Hand Therapy, 3, 108-123.

[30]   Burkholder, J.F. (2000) Osteoarthritis of the Hand: A Modifiable Disease. Journal of Hand Therapy, 13, 79-89.

[31]   Poole, J.U. and Pellegrini, V.D. (2000) Arthritis of the Thumb Basal Joint Complex. Journal of Hand Therapy, 13, 91- 100.

[32]   Lockard, M.A. (2000) Exercise for the Patient with Upper Quadrant Osteoarthritis. Journal of Hand Therapy, 13, 175-183.

[33]   Burr, B. and Schaffler, M.B. (1997) The Involvement of the Subchondral Mineralized Tissues in Osteoarthrosis: Quantitative Microscopic Evidence. Microscopy Research Technology, 15, 343-357.<343::AID-JEMT9>3.0.CO;2-L

[34]   Altman, R.D. and Gray, R. (1995) Inflammation in Osteoarthritis. Clinics in the Rheumatic Diseases, 11, 353-365.

[35]   Brandt, K.D. (1997) Putting Some Muscle into Osteoarthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127, 154-156.

[36]   Threlkeld, J. and Currier, D.P. (1988) Osteoarthritis. Effects on Synovial Tissues. Physical Therapy, 68, 364-370.

[37]   Glasberg, M.R., Glasberg, J.R. and Jones, R.E. (1986) Muscle Pathology in Total Knee Replacement for Severe Osteoarthritis. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal, 34, 37-40.

[38]   Marks, R., Quinney, H.A. and Wessel, J. (1993) Proprioceptive Sensibility in Women with Normal and Osteoarthritic Knee Joints. Clinical Rheumatology, 12, 170-175.

[39]   Acheson, R.M. and Oration, H. (1981) Epidemiology and the Arthritides. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 4, 325- 334.

[40]   Thompson, J.A., Jennings, M.B. and Hodge, W. (1992) Orthotic Therapy in the Management of Osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 82, 136-139.

[41]   White, S.H., Ludkowski, P.F. and Goodfellow, J.W. (1991) Anteromedial Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 73, 582-586.

[42]   Minor, M.A., Webel, R.R., Kay, D.R., Hewett, J.E. and Anderson, S.K. (1989) Efficacy of Physical Conditioning Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 32, 1396-1405.

[43]   Philbin, E.F., Groff, G.D., Ries, M.D. and Miller, T.E. (1995) Cardiovascular Fitness and Health in Patients with End-Stage Osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 38, 799-805.

[44]   Beals, C.A., Lampman, R.M., Banwell, B.F., Braunstein, E.M., Albers, J.W. and Castor, C.W. (1985) Measurement of Exercise Tolerance in Patients with Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis. Journal of Rheumatology, 2, 458-461.

[45]   Dieppe, P., Cushnaghan, J., Tucker, M., Browning, S. and Shepstone, L. (2000) The Bristol “OA500 Study”: Progression and Impact of the Disease after 8 Years. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 8, 63-68.

[46]   Krick, J.P., Sobal, J. and De Forge, B.R. (1986) Psychosocial Aspects of the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Osteoarthritis. Clinical Therapeutics, 9, 43-52.

[47]   Briggs, A., Scott, E. and Steele, K. (1999) Impact of Osteoarthritis and Analgesic Treatment on Quality of Life of an Elderly Population. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 33, 1154-1159.

[48]   Lawrence, J.S. (1975) Hypertension in Relation to Musculoskeletal Disorders. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 34, 451-456.

[49]   Yelin, E., Lubeck, D., Holman, H. and Epstein, W. (1987) The Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis: The Activities of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis Compared to Controls. Journal of Rheumatology, 14, 710-716.

[50]   Buckwalter, J.A., Martin, J. and Mankin, H.J. (2000) Synovial Joint Degeneration and the Syndrome of Osteoarthritis. Instructional Course Lectures, 49, 481-489.

[51]   Kuettner, K.E. (1992) Biochemistry of Articular Cartilage in Health and Disease. Clinical Biochemistry, 25, 155-163.

[52]   Borghetti, P., Della Salda, L., De Angleis, E., Maltarello, M.C., Petronini, P.G., Cabassi, E., et al. (1995) Adaptive Cellular Response to Osmotic Stress in Pig Articular Chondrocytes. Tissue and Cell, 27, 173-183.

[53]   Brocklehurst, R., Bayliss, M.T., Maroudas, A., Coysh, H.L., Freeman, M.A., Revell, P.A. and Ali, S.Y. (1984) The Composition of Normal and Osteoarthritic Articular Cartilage from Human Knee Joints. With Special Reference to Unicompartmental Replacement and Osteotomy of the Knee. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 66, 95-106.

[54]   Marks, R. (1991) Effect of Altered Functional Demand on the Structure and Functional Properties of Articular Cartilage. New Zealand Journal Physiotherapy, 19, 31-34.

[55]   Jones, G.M. and Watt, D.G.D. (1971) Muscular Control of Landing from Unexpected Falls in Man. Journal of Physiology, 219, 729-737.

[56]   Kim, K.K.T., Shahid, M. and Sharif, M. (1996) Recent Advances in Osteoarthritis. Singapore Medical Journal, 37, 189-193.

[57]   Cvijetiae, S., Campbell, L., Cooper, C., Kirwan, J. and Potocki, K. (2000) Radiographic Osteoarthritis in the Elderly Population of Zagreb: Distribution, Correlates, and the Pattern of Joint Involvement. Clinical Science, 41, 58-63.

[58]   McAlindon, T.E. (1999) The Knee. Ballieres Clinical Rheumatology, 13, 329-344.

[59]   Bland, J.H. (1983) The Reversibility of Osteoarthritis: A Review. American Journal of Medicine, 74, 16-26.

[60]   Treadwell, B.V. and Mankin, H.J. (1986) The Synthetic Processes of Articular Cartilage. Clinical Orthopaedic and Related Research, 213, 50-61.

[61]   Brooks, P.M. and Marsh, L.M. (1995) New Insights into Osteoarthritis. Medical Journal of Australia, 63, 367-369.

[62]   Gerber, L.H. and Hicks, J.E. (1992) Rehabilitation in the Management of Patients with Osteoarthritis. In: Goldberg, V.M., Mankin, H.J., Moskowitz, R.W. and Howell, D.S., Eds., Osteoarthritis, Diagnosis and Medical/Surgical Management, 2nd Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 433.

[63]   Gelber, A.C., Hochberg, M.C., Mead, L.A., Wang, N.Y., Wigley, F.M. and Klag, M.J. (2000) Joint Injury in Young Adults and Risk for Subsequent Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 133, 321-328.

[64]   Perry, G.H., Smith, M.J.P. and Whiteside, C.G. (1972) Spontaneous Recovery of the Joint Space in Degenerative Hip Disease. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 31, 440-448.

[65]   Liang, M.H. and Jette, A.M. (1981) Measuring Functional Ability in Chronic Arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 24, 80-86.

[66]   Moritz, U. (1980) Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. Scandanavian Journal of Rheumatology, 43, 49-55.

[67]   Juhn, M.S. (2000) Manual Physical Therapy and Exercise Helpful for Knee Osteoarthritis. Physician and Sports Medicine, 28, 24.

[68]   Berman, B.M., Swyers, J.P. and Ezzo, J. (2000) The Evidence for Acupuncture as a Treatment for Rheumatological Conditions. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 26, 103-115.

[69]   Marks, R. and De Palma, F. (1999) Effect of Laser Therapy in Osteoarthritis. Research Physiotherapy International, 4, 141-157.

[70]   Marks, R., Ghassemi, M., Duarte, R. and Van Nguyen, J.P. (1999) A Review of the Literature on Shortwave Diathermy as Applied to Osteo-Arthritis of the Knee. Physiotherapy, 85, 304-316.

[71]   Marks, R., Ghanagarajah, S. and Ghassemi, M. (2000) Ultrasound for Treating Arthritis. A Systematic Review. Physio- therapy, 86, 452-463.

[72]   Stelian, J., Gil, I., Habot, B., Rosenthal, M., Abramovici, I., Kutok, N. and Khahil, A. (1992) Improvement of Pain and Disability in Elderly Patients with Degenerative Osteoarthritis of the Knee Treated with Narrow-Band Light Therapy. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 40, 23-26.

[73]   Favaro, L., Frisoni, M., Baffoni, L. and Ferri, E.S. (1994) Successful Treatment of Hand Erosive Osteoarthritis by Infrared Radiation. Europa Medicophysica, 30, 45-48.

[74]   Trock, D.H., Bollet, A.J., Dyer, R.H., Fielding, L.P., Miner, W.K. and Markoll, R. (1993) A Double-Blind Trial of the Clinical Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Osteoarthritis. Journal of Rheumatology, 20, 456-460.

[75]   Loudon, J.K. (1999) Case Report: Manual Therapy Management of Hip Osteoarthritis. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 7, 203-208.

[76]   Oosterveld, F.G. and Rasker, J.J. (1994) Effects of Local Heat and Cold Treatment on Surface and Articular Temperature of Arthritic Knees. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 37, 1578-1582.

[77]   Brosseau, L., Welch, V., Wells, G., Tugwell, P., de Bie, R., Gam, A., et al. (2000) Low Level Laser Therapy for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Rheumatology, 27, 1961-1969.

[78]   Gordon, A., Merenstein, J.H., D’Amico, F. and Hudgens, D. (1998) The Effects of Therapeutic Touch on Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Journal of Family Practice, 47, 271-277.

[79]   Robertsson, O., Wingstrand, H. and Önnerfält, R. (1995) Intracapsular Pressure and Pain in Coxarthrosis. Journal of Arthroplasty, 10, 632-635.

[80]   Hochberg, M.C., Altman, R.D., Brandt, K.D., Clark, B.M., Dieppe, P.A., Griffin, M.R., et al. (1995) Guidelines for the Medical Management of Osteoarthritis Part I. Osteoarthritis of the Hip. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 38, 1535-1540.

[81]   O’ Connel, P. (1994) Conservative Management of Osteoarthritis of the Hip. Irish Medical Journal, 87, 170-174.

[82]   Bunning, R.D. and Materson, R.S. (1991) A Rational Program of Exercise for Patients with Osteoarthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 21, 33-43.

[83]   Steultjens, M.P.M., Dekker, J., van Baar, M.E., Oostendorp, R.A.B. and Bijlsma, J.W.J. (2000) Range of Motion and Disability in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee or Hip. Rheumatology, 39, 955-961.

[84]   Waters, R.L., Perry, J., Conaty, P., Lunsford, B. and O’Meara, P. (1987) The Energy Cost of Walking with Arthritis of the Hip and Knee. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 214, 278-284.

[85]   Sirca, A. and Susec-Michieli, M. (1980) Selective Type II Fibre Muscle Atrophy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Hip. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 44, 149-159.

[86]   Nakamura, T. and Suzuki, K. (1992) Muscular Changes in Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee. Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, 66, 467-475.

[87]   Burkhard, A. and Taillard, W. (1975) Electromyographische untersuching der statischen und dynamischen funktion der hufte nach total endoprothese. Zeitschruft fur Orthopedicshe, 113, 322-331.

[88]   Dieppe, P. (1995) Management of Hip Osteoarthritis. British Medical Journal, 311, 853-857.

[89]   Lunghi, M.E., Miller, P.M.C. and McQuillan, W.M. (1978) Pyscho-Social Factors in Osteoarthritis of the Hip. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 22, 57-63.

[90]   Hawley, D.J. (1995) Psycho-Educational Interventions in the Treatment of Arthritis. Clinical Rheumatology, 9, 803- 823.

[91]   Allegrante, J.P. (1996) The Role of Adjunctive Therapy in the Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain. American Journal of Medicine, 101, S33- S39.

[92]   Bradley, L.A. and Alberts, K.R. (1999) Psychological and Behavioral Approaches to Pain Management for Patients with Rheumatic Disease. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 25, 215-232.

[93]   Lorig, K., Lubeck, D., Kraines, R.G., Seleznick, M. and Holman, H.R. (1985) Outcomes of Self-Help Education for Patients with Arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 28, 680-685.

[94]   Lorig, K. and Holman, H. (1993) Arthritis Self-Management Studies: A Twelve-Year Review. Health Education Quarterly, 20, 17-28.

[95]   Lorig, K.R., Mazonson, P.D. and Holman, H.R. (1993) Evidence Suggesting That Health Education for Self-Management in Patients with Chronic Arthritis Has Sustained Health Benefits While Reducing Care Costs. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 36, 439-446.

[96]   Perrot, S. and Menkes, C.-J. (1996) Nonpharmacological Approaches to Pain in Osteoarthritis. Drugs, 52, 21-26.

[97]   Ruoff, G.E. (1999) Strategies to Control Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Part 1, Work-Up and Nondrug Therapy. Consultant, 39, 2561-2571.

[98]   Stitik, T.P., Nadler, S.F., Foye, P.M., et al. (1999) Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee: Practical Nondrug Steps to Successful Therapy. Consultant, 39, 1707-1714.

[99]   Lane, N.E. and Thompson, J.M. (1997) Management of Osteoarthritis in the Primary-Care Setting: An Evidence-Based Approach. American Journal of Medicine, 13, S25- S30.

[100]   Puppione, A.A. and Schumann, L. (1999) Management Strategies for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis: How to Promote and Maintain Function. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 11, 167-174.

[101]   Superio-Cabuslay, E., Ward, M.M. and Lorig, K.R. (1996) Patient Education Interventions in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analytic Comparison with Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Treatment. Arthritis Care & Research, 9, 292-301.<292::AID-ANR1790090414>3.0.CO;2-4

[102]   Bagge, E. and Brooks, P. (1995) Osteoarthritis in Older Patients. Drugs and Aging, 7, 176-183.

[103]   Mazzuca, S.A., Brandt, K.D., Katz, B.P., Hanna, M.P. and Melfi, C.A. (1999) Reduced Utilization and Cost of Primary Care Clinic Visits Resulting from Self-Care Education for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 42, 1267-1273.<1267::AID-ANR25>3.0.CO;2-E

[104]   Ronen, R., Braun, Z., Eyal, P. and Eldar, R. (1996) A Community-Oriented Programme for Rehabilitation of Persons with Arthritis. Disability and Rehabilitation, 18, 476-481.

[105]   Skou, S.T., Simonsen, M.E., Odgaard, A., Roos, E.M. (2014) Predictors of Long-Term Effect from Education and Exercise in Patients with Knee and Hip Pain. Danish Medical Journal, 61, Article ID: A4867.

[106]   Wade, J. and Liang, M.H. (1988) Management of Non-Inflammatory Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly. Complementary Therapy, 14, 38-43.

[107]   Mazzuca, S.A. (1982) Does Patient Education in Chronic Disease Have Therapeutic Value? Journal of Chronic Diseases, 35, 521-529.

[108]   Bull, F.C., Kreuter, M.W. and Scharff, D.P. (1999) Effects of Tailored, Personalized and General Health Messages on Physical Activity. Patient Education and Counseling, 36, 181-192.

[109]   Kreuter, M.W., Bull, F.C., Clark, E.M. and Oswald, D.L. (1999) Understanding How People Process Health Information: A Comparison of Tailored and Nontailored Weight-Loss Materials. Health Psychology, 18, 487-494.

[110]   Allegrante, J.P., Kovar, P.A., MacKenzie, C.R., Peterson, M.G.E. and Gutin, B. (1993) A Walking Education Program for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Theory and Intervention Strategies. Health Education Quarterly, 20, 63-81.

[111]   Gecht, M.R., Connell, K.J., Sinacore, J.M. and Prohaska, T.R. (1996) A Survey of Exercise Beliefs and Exercise Habits among People with Arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 9, 82-88.<82::AID-ANR1790090203>3.0.CO;2-T

[112]   Hirano, P.C., Laurent, D.D. and Lorig, K. (1994) Arthritis Patient-Education Studies, 1987-1991: A Review of the Literature. Patient Education and Counselling, 24, 9-54.

[113]   Sullivan, T., Allegrante, J.P., Peterson, M.G.E., Kovar, P.A. and MacKenzie, C.R. (1998) One-Year Follow up of Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Who Participated in a Program of Supervised Fitness Walking and Supportive Patient Education. Arthritis Care and Research, 11, 228-233.

[114]   Barlow, J.H., Williams, B. and Wright, C.C. (1999) Instilling the Strength to Fight the Pain and Get on with Life: Learning to Become an Arthritis Self-Manager through an Adult Education Programme. Health Education Research, 14, 533-544.

[115]   Hopman-Rock, M. and Westhoff, M.H. (2000) The Effects of a Health Educational and Exercise Program for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis for the Hip or Knee. Journal of Rheumatology, 27, 1947-1954.

[116]   Banwell, B.F. (1989) Exercise and Arthritis. Postgraduate Advances in Arthritis for Health Professionals, I-V, 3-12.

[117]   Neville, C., Fortin, P.R., Fitzcharles, M.-A., Baron, M., Abrahamowitz, M., Du Berger, R. and Esdaile, J.M. (1999) The Needs of Patients with Arthritis: The Patient’s Perspective. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 12, 85-95.<85::AID-ART3>3.0.CO;2-W

[118]   Altman, D., Hochberg, M.C., Moskowitz, R.W., et al. (2000) Recommendations for the Medical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee: 2000 Update. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 43, 1905-1915.<1905::AID-ANR1>3.0.CO;2-P

[119]   Kreuter, M.W., Strecher, V.J. and Glassman, B. (1999) One Size Does Not Fit All: The Case for Tailoring Print Materials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 276-283.

[120]   Dexter, P.A. (1991) Joint Exercises in Elderly Persons with Symptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee. Performance Patterns, Medical Support Patterns, and the Relationship between Exercising and Medical Care. Arthritis Care and Research, 5, 36-41.

[121]   Weinberger, M., Tierney, W.M., Cowper, P.A., Katz, B.P. and Booher, P.A. (1993) Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Telephone Contact for Patients with Osteoarthritis. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 36, 243-246.

[122]   Rene, J., Weinberger, M., Mazzuca, S.A., Brandt, K.D. and Katz, B.P. (1992) Reduction of Joint Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis Who Have Received Monthly Telephone Calls from Lay Personnel and Whose Medical Treatment Regimens Have Remained Stable. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 35, 511-555.

[123]   Masiak, R., Austin, J. and Heck, L. (1996) Health Outcomes of Two Telephone Interventions for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 39, 1391-1399.

[124]   Calfas, K.J., Kaplan, R.M. and Ingram, R.E. (1992) One-Year Evaluation of Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention in Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 5, 202-209.

[125]   Castaneda, D.M., Bigatti, S. and Cronan, T.A. (1998) Gender and Exercise Behavior among Women and Men with Osteoarthritis. Women & Health, 27, 33-53.

[126]   Keefe, F.J., Lefebvre, J.C., Kerns, R.D., Rosenberg, R., Beaupre, P., Prochaska, J., et al. (2000) Understanding the Adoption of Arthritis Self-Management: Stages of Change Profiles among Arthritis Patients. Pain, 87, 303-313.

[127]   Keefe, F.J., Caldwell, D.S., Baucom, D., Salley, A., Robinson, E., Timmons, K., et al. (1999) Spouse-Assisted Coping Skills Training in the Management of Knee Pain in Osteoarthritis: Long-Term Follow-Up Results. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 12, 101-111.<101::AID-ART5>3.0.CO;2-9

[128]   Hampson, S.E., Glasgow, R.E. and Zeiss, A.M. (1996) Coping with Osteoarthritis by Older Adults. Arthritis Care and Research, 9, 133-141.<133::AID-ANR1790090210>3.0.CO;2-9

[129]   Rice, J.M. (1989) Decreasing Osteoarthritis Pain. A Psychological Case Report with Follow-Up Data. Clinical Journal of Pain, 5, 183-188.

[130]   Hirokawa, S. and Matsumura, K. (1989) Biofeedback Gait Training System for Temporal and Distance Factors. Medical Biological Engineering and Computing, 27, 8-13.

[131]   Keefe, F.J., Caldwell, D.S., Williams, D.A., Gil, K.M., Mitchell, D., Robertson, C., et al. (1990) Pain Coping Skills in the Management of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain-II: Follow-Up Results. Behavior Therapy, 21, 435-447.

[132]   Zischke, J.K. (1987) Research Evidence for the Effectiveness of a Recreational Exercise Program for People with Arthritis. Proceedings of the Arthritis Health Professional Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia.

[133]   Simpson, C.F. and Dickenson, G.R. (1983) Exercise. American Journal of Nursing, 2, 273-274.

[134]   Summers, M.N., Haley, W.E., Reveille, J.D. and AlarcOan, G.S. (1988) Radiographic Assessment and Psychological Variables as Predictors of Pain and Functional Impairment in Osteoarthritis of the Knee or Hip. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 31, 204- 209.

[135]   Fuchs, H.A. (1987) Saturday Conference: Management of Osteoarthritis. Southern Medical Journal, 80, 618-622.

[136]   Hampson, S.E., Glasgow, R.E., Zeiss, A.M., Birskovich, S.F., Foster, L. and Lines, A. (1993) Self-Management of Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 6, 17-22.

[137]   Palmoski, M., Perricine, E. and Brandt, K.D. (1979) Development and Reversal of Proteoglycan Aggregation Defect in Normal Canine Knee Articular Cartilage after Immobilisation. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 22, 508-517.

[138]   Block, J.A. and Schnitzer, T.J. (1997) Therapeutic Approaches to Osteoarthritis. Hospital Practice, 15, 159-164.

[139]   Ohsawa, S. and Ueno, R. (1997) Heel Lifting as a Conservative Therapy for Osteoarthritis of the Hip: Based on the Rationale of Pauwels’ Intertrochanteric Osteotomy. Prosthetics and Orthotics International, 21, 153-158.

[140]   Brandt, K.D. (1998) The Importance of Nonpharmacologic Approaches in the Management of Osteoarthritis. American Journal of Medicine, 105, 39S-44S.

[141]   Jackson, S.J., Krebs, D.E. and Harris, B.A. (1997) Acetabular Pressures during Hip Arthritis Exercises. Arthritis Care and Research, 10, 308-319.

[142]   Kettunen, J.A., Kujala, U.M., Raty, H., Videman, T., Sarna, S., Impivaara, O. and Koskinen, S. (2000) Factors Associated with Hip Joint Rotation in Former Athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 44-48.

[143]   Syed, I.Y. and Davis, B.L. (2000) Obesity and Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Hypotheses Concerning the Relationship between Ground Reaction Forces and Quadriceps Fatigue in Long-Duration Walking. Medical Hypotheses, 54, 182-185.

[144]   Sharma, L., Lou, C., Cahue, S. and Dunlop, D.D. (2000) The Mechanisms of the Effect of Obesity in Knee Osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 43, 568-575.<568::AID-ANR13>3.0.CO;2-E

[145]   Foye, P.M., Stitik, T.P., Chen, B.Q. and Nadler, S.F. (2000) Osteoarthritis and Body Weight. Nutrition Research, 20, 899-903.

[146]   Kealy, R.D., Lawler, D.F., Ballam, J.M., Lust, G., Smith, G.K., Biery, D.N. and Olsson, S.E. (1997) Five-Year Longitudinal Study on Limited Food Consumption and Development of Osteoarthritis in Coxofemoral Joints of Dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 210, 222-225.

[147]   Petrella, R.J. (1999) Exercises for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 27, 109-111.

[148]   Simkin, P.A., de Lateur, B.J., Alquist, A.D., Questad, K.A., Beardsley, R.M. and Esselman, P.C. (1999) Continuous Passive Motion for Osteoarthritis of the Hip: A Pilot Study. Journal of Rheumatology, 26, 1987-1991.

[149]   Imamura, S.T., Riberto, M., Fischer, A.A., Imamura, M., Kaziyama, H.H.S. and Teixeira, M.J. (1998) Successful Pain Relief by Treatment of Myofascial Components in Patients with Hip Pathology Scheduled for Total Hip Replacement. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 6, 73-89.

[150]   van Baar, M.E., Dekker, J., Lemmens, J.A., Oostendorp, R.A. and Bijlsma, J.W. (1998) Pain and Disability in Patients with Osteoarthritis of Hip or Knee: The Relationship with Articular, Kinesiological, and Psychological Characteristics. Journal of Rheumatology, 25, 125-133.

[151]   Sylvester, K.L. (1989) Investigation of the Effect of Hydrotherapy in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Hips. Clinical Rehabilitation, 4, 223-228.

[152]   Suomi, R. and Koceja, D.M. (2000) Postural Sway Characteristics in Women with Lower Extremity Arthritis before and after an Aquatic Exercise Intervention. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 6, 780-785.

[153]   Green, J., McKenna, F., Redfern, E.J. and Chamberlain, M.A. (1993) Home Exercises Are as Effective as Outpatient Hydrotherapy for Osteoarthritis of the Hip. British Journal of Rheumatology, 32, 812-815.

[154]   Nguyen, M., Revel, M. and Dougados, M. (1997) Prolonged Effects of 3 Week Therapy in a Spa Resort on Lumbar Spine, Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: Follow-Up after 6 Months. A Randomized Controlled Trial. British Journal of Rheumatology, 36, 77-81.

[155]   Forestier, R. (2000) Magnitude and Duration of the Effects of Two Spa Therapy Courses on Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: An Open Prospective Study in 51 Consecutive Patients. Joint Bone and Spine, 67, 296-304.

[156]   Callaghan, M.J., Oldham, J. and Hunt, J. (1995) An Evaluation of Exercise Regimes for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 9, 213-218.

[157]   van Baar, M.E., Assendelft, W.J.J., Dekker, J., Oostendorp, R.A.B. and Bijlsma, J.W.J. (1999) Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 42, 1361-1369.<1361::AID-ANR9>3.0.CO;2-9

[158]   Odding, E., Valkenburg, H.A., Algra, D., Vandenouweland, F.A., Grobbee, D.E. and Hofman, A. (1998) Associations of Radiological Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee with Locomotor Disability in the Rotterdam Study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 57, 203-208.

[159]   Moffett, J.A., Richardson, P.H., Frost, H. and Osborn, A. (1996) A Placebo Controlled Double Blind Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Pulsed Short Wave Therapy for Osteoarthritic Hip and Knee Pain. Pain, 67, 121-127.

[160]   Hamilton, D.E., Bywaters, E.G.L. and Please, N.W. (1959) A Controlled Trial of Various Forms of Physiotherapy in Arthritis. British Medical Journal, 2, 542-544.

[161]   Barwick, P.A. and Swezey, R.L. (1982) Physical Therapies in Arthritis. Which to Choose, When to Use, How Not to Abuse. Postgraduate Medicine, 72, 223-233.