CE  Vol.6 No.10 , June 2015
Identity and the Arts: Using Drama and Masks as a Pedagogical Tool to Support Identity Development in Adolescence
ABSTRACT
Identity in adolescents is an ever-growing concern and pre-occupation within formal education, with a need to identify factors that can positively impact upon adolescent development. Identity and understanding of the human condition has been apparent from earliest records of Homo sapiens. One of the earliest recorded exploration and understanding of this is through ritual ceremony and the role that mask has played in allowing people to explore what it means to us through adopting the “other”. It therefore stands to reason that if masks have and still do allow individuals to explore identity and place in life, there may be an impact upon adolescents who use masks within their formal drama education. This paper explores: The concepts of identity having a correspondence to mask usage; The potential for masks to support the individual to disassociate from the self; and the sense of being.. If we wish to support adolescent development and self awareness, at the core of drama curricula we need to re-position the usage of masks in the classroom beyond being tied to core historical academic knowledge but as a pedagogical methodology in its own right, we need to support adolescent exploration of identity.

Cite this paper
Roy, D. and Ladwig, J. (2015) Identity and the Arts: Using Drama and Masks as a Pedagogical Tool to Support Identity Development in Adolescence. Creative Education, 6, 907-913. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.610092.
References
[1]   Barba, E., & Savarese, N. (2006). A Dictionary of Theatre Anthropology (R. Fowler, Trans., 2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

[2]   Berk, L. E. (2005). Infants, Children and Adolescents (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

[3]   Boal, A. (1998). Legislative Theatre. London: Routledge.

[4]   Campbell, J. (1969). The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology. New York: Penguin Compass.

[5]   Ching, E. D., & Ching, K. (2006). Faces of Your Soul. Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

[6]   Cole, M., Engestrom, Y., & Vasquez, O. (Eds.) (1997). Mind, Culture, and Activity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[7]   Cooper, K. J. (2014). Eliciting Engagement in the High School Classroom: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Teaching Practices. American Educational Research Journal, 51, 363-402.

[8]   Cziboly, A. (Ed.) (2010). The DICE Has Been Cast: Research Findings and Recommendations on Educational Theatre and Drama. Lisbon: DICE.

[9]   Edson, G. (2005). Masks and Masking: Faces of Tradition and Belief Worldwide (Vol. Jefferson, NC). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

[10]   Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

[11]   Foreman, J. (2000). Maskwork. Cambridge: The Lutterworth Press.

[12]   Galaska, A., & Krason, K. (2011). Drama Movement Techniques and Formation of Self-Creative Competences of a Child at the Early School Age-Initial Approach. Drama Research: International Journal of Drama in Education, 2.

[13]   Griffiths, D. (1998). Acting through Mask (Vol. 1). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.

[14]   Hamilton, L. H. (1997). The Person behind the Mask. London: Ablex Publishing.

[15]   Harter, S. (2003). The Development of Self-Representation during Childhood and Adolescence. In M. R. Leary, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 610-642). New York: Guilford.

[16]   Hattie, J. (2008). Visible Learning. London: Routledge.

[17]   Hewlett, B. L. (Ed.) (2013). Adolescent Identity: Evolutionary, Cultural and Developmental Perspectives. New York: Routledge.

[18]   Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-Discrepency Theory: A Theory Relating Self and Affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319

[19]   Just, P., & Monaghan, J. (2000). Social and Cultural Anthropology: A Very Short Introduction. London: Oxford University Press.

[20]   Kroger, J. (2004). Identity in Adolescence. London: Routledge.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203346860

[21]   Lee, B. K., Patall, E. A., Cawthon, S. W., & Steingut, R. R. (2015). The Effects of Drama-Based pedagogy on PreK-16 Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Research from 1985 to 2012. Review of Educational Research, 85, 3-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654314540477

[22]   Lévi-Strauss, C. (1982). The Way of Masks (S. Modelski, Trans.). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

[23]   Mack, J. (Ed.) (1994). Masks and the Art of Expression. New York: Abrams.

[24]   Martin, A. J., Mansour, M., Anderson, M., Gibson, R., Liem, G. A. D., & Sudmalis, D. (2013). The Role of Arts Participation in Student’s Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study, Home, and Community Factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 709-727.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032795

[25]   Moore, A., & Lloyd, D. (1990). V For Vendetta. New York: Vertigo/DC Comics.

[26]   Morgan, N., & Saxton, J. (1987). Teaching Drama: A Mind of Many Wonders. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.

[27]   Nunley, J. W., & McCarthy, C. (1999). Masks: Faces of Culture. New York: Abrams.

[28]   Pollock, D. (1995). Masks and the Semiotics of Identity. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1, 581-597.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3034576

[29]   Robinson, K. (2011). Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative (2nd ed.). New York: Capstone.

[30]   Rose-Krasner, L., Busseri, M. A., Willoughby, T., & Chalmers, H. (2006). Breadth and Intensity of Youth Activity Involvement as Contexts for Positive Development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 365-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9037-6

[31]   Roy, D., & Dock, C. (2014). Dyspraxia, Drama and Masks: Applying the School Curriculum as Therapy. Journal of Applied Arts and Health, 5, 369-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/jaah.5.3.369_1

[32]   Shanahan, M. J., & Flaherty, B. P. (2001). Dynamic Patterns of Time Use in Adolescence. Child Development, 72, 385-401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00285

[33]   Twycross, M., & Carpenter, S. (2002). Masks and Masking in Medieval and Early Tudor England. Aldershot: Ashgate.

[34]   Urban, G., & Hendriks, J. W. (1983). Signal Functions of Masking in Amerindian Brazil. Semiotica, 47, 181-216.

[35]   Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

[36]   Wainscott, R., & Fletcher, K. (2010). Theatre: Collaborative Acts (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

[37]   Wigfield, W., Byrnes, J. P., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Development during Warly and Middle Adolescence. In P. A. Alexander, & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (2nd ed., pp. 87-113). New York, NY: Erlbaum.

[38]   Wilsher, T. (2007). The Mask Handbook: A Practical Guide. Abingdon: Routledge.

[39]   Wright, P. (2006). Drama Education and Development of Self: Myth or Reality? Social Psychology of Education, 9, 43-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-005-4791-y

 
 
Top